What does Stahp mean when writing SMS

The SMS language of teenagers

The 1BHK of the Bundeshandelsakademie Zell am See (29 students) dealt with the SMS language.

Project duration: February - March 2012

For our research, we first collected a large number of SMS that were stored on our own cell phones. We used these examples to determine which linguistic Special features and deviations from the default language. According to these categories, we specialized in teams seven areas.




1.1. punctuation


When writing SMS, punctuation is used mostly ignored. Young people pay more attention to the content of the SMS than to commas, periods, question marks and other punctuation marks.
The most common deviations from the rules are Use of several callsigns or question marks in a row.
The use of commas is usually completely dispensed with.
special character such as the & signs are used instead of words or incorrectly. Another peculiarity is that no attention is paid to periods, question marks and callsigns at the end of the sentence.

  • under you !!!!! (Dare you!)
  • jo no idea (Yes No idea.)
  • a bisal chat & so? (A little chat and all that.)
  • sea ​​guad (Very good)
  • jo mia sitting in the cinema (Yes, we are in the cinema.)


1.2. grammar


We young people do not care about grammatical correctness when writing SMS.
Most of the deviations from the rules happen through the used dialect.
The sentences are often incomplete. It lacks noun, pronoun, Adverbs, prepositions and Conjunctions. Sometimes it happens that the author omits the subject or predicate. Time stages and Tenses are often ignored. Usually the content is more important than correct grammar for the young people. Adjectives will be in some situations exaggerated used and omitted in other places. The cases are often ignored at all.

  • zads di kino? (Do you want to go to the cinema?) - The preposition is missing.
  • moanst you with the part vo da judith? (Do you mean that part of Judith?) - The case is not true: Instead of "the" belongs to "the".
  • nid zwax (not too bad / dangerous) - subject and predicate are missing.


1.3. spelling, orthography


The most common spelling deviations from the standard language are that all words in lower case be and that Letters left out become. Young people are more likely to use the when writing an SMS dialect. It's not always clear whether it's a spelling mistake or a dialect.
The young people totally neglect or dispense with upper and lower case letters. So, for example, everyone will Nouns in lower case, only the beginning of sentences are sometimes capitalized.
Often there are also a few Replaced letter with another. Furthermore, an "e" is usually written instead of an "ä", which is probably due to the fact that you want to be as fast as possible when writing SMS.
At the end of the word are often Omit lettersbecause the word still makes sense.
Also the spelling of used English words is often wrong.
When teenagers give an order, it also happens that all letters capitalized become. This should make the writing appear more haunting.

  • nothing (nothing) - The "x" replaces the letters "c", "h", "t" and "s".
  • hey (today) - The "i" replaces the "u".
  • scho (already) - The "n" is missing.
  • week (Week) - The noun is written in lower case and the "e" is missing.
  • movie theater (Kino) - The word should be capitalized.


1.4. Smileys and symbols


Emoticons are considered by teenagers Expression of feelings used in short messages.
As an expression of positive feelings emoticons like: :),;),: D,: 3,:>,:] and ^^ are used.
As an expression of negative feelings apply emoticons like: :(,: <,; (, D :,: '(,: E and -.-.
For love there are emoticons like: *, <3 and * _ *.
The young people often only answer questions with emoticons.

  • : O (surprise or shock)
  • : P (tongue out)
  • : / (Skepticism)
  • o.O (amazement)
  • B-) (enthusiasm)


1.5. dialect


The dialect is intended to give young people difficult German words shorten and simplify.
In addition, the dialect is often used to avoid having to pay attention to spelling and grammar, as in German lessons, and thus a lot more quickly is. There are words in the dialect that cannot be translated into regular language.

  • A leak, where do you go? (Oh my goodness, what's going on here?)
  • hey du deggei, hosd you mei handy gschrott? !! (Hey you fool, did you break my cell phone?)
  • know eam (Show him!)
  • What's up aaaab, hosd gscheid gfeiat ??? (What's up, did you have a nice party yesterday?)


1.6. Abbreviations


Around avoid awkward and long sentences, young people often use abbreviations. We avoid them on the one hand by To save space and on the other hand about the Reduce the cost of many SMS. Unlike older people, teenagers have no problem deciphering these abbreviations. However, we do not use such abbreviations either in normal linguistic usage or in essays. Abbreviations that result in new words are called Acronyms designated. Examples are "LOL" (Laughing out Loud) or "OMG" (Oh my God!). In addition, a large number of the abbreviations are written as they are in English.
However, abbreviations are also used that are difficult to decipher. Who would come up with the idea that "KK" means "okay, okay"?

  • bb (See you soon!)
  • kP (No problem!)
  • Wg? (How are you?)
  • vlt (maybe)
  • gg (grin grin)
  • n / a (No idea!)


1.7. English expressions


The English language is often used in text messages from young people and mixed with the German language. Some English words that are also used in German cannot even be found in German dictionaries. Many English expressions are used as abbreviationsbecause there aren't that many of them in the German language. Usually they replace several words.

  • WTF (What the fuck)
  • gn8 (Goodnight)
  • lol (laughing out loud)
  • omg (oh my god)
  • sry (sorry)
  • we (weekend)
  • ly (love you)



We have ours Results worked out by myself and not used any sources other than the original SMS on our own cell phones. But we point (see Left) to some websites where you can get more information on the subject.







Contributors to this page: CM, Thomas Rathgeb, Valentina Kusic, ingridb, sjud, nbrillinger, Nino Hadwiger, Melanie Hoeller and Joshua Balle.
Page last changed: on Wednesday, December 11, 2013 15:24:28 by CM.