How to Throw Up Sureno Gang Signs
Experience: project! Astronomy. Electricity acoustics. children Party
1 experience: project! Methods and work booklet II Scientific and technical project suggestions from the KON TE XIS Learning workshop Technology Children's festival Astronomy Electricity Acoustics
3 FOREWORD Dear Readers, Scientific and technical education aims to accompany children and young people on their way to understanding and penetrating a world shaped by natural science and technology, in order to enable them to fully participate in individual and social contexts of life. One is often confronted with the idea that this path can only be followed with an understanding of fundamental scientific and technical concepts and methods. However, right from the start - without this understanding - children should not be viewed as scientific beginners and ignorant people, but rather as experts. They show curiosity, are fascinated by natural phenomena and have the desire to get to the bottom of things and to explore the world in all its facets. They already have their individual world knowledge before school and it is important to build on this previous experience in every age group. Based on the ideas and interests of the children and adolescents, ideas for learning and playing should be designed in the subject areas of animate and inanimate nature, which encourage and encourage their own discovery and research as well as independent thought processes. In order to support specialists and managers in youth welfare, education officers, lecturers and trainers in adult and further education in mastering these demanding tasks, it made sense for KON TE XIS to develop further offers, which are increasingly designed to be interdisciplinary and creatively combine impulses from different educational areas. KON TE XIS is a project of the Technical Youth Leisure and Education Association (tjfbv) e.v., which, since its foundation in 1991, has pursued the goal of combining scientific-technical content and socio-educational work. Part of the project work is also the publication of this second work and method booklet, which focuses on children's learning through action. Many learning steps can also turn out differently than planned and expected, as the children independently came up with other ideas that are just as much a part of the project as the original plans. However, this freedom is desired because it also stimulates creativity, for example. With this manual you will receive numerous practical suggestions from us on how you can introduce children of all ages to scientific and technical topics. The project outlines deal with the following topics: Astronomy (for children between 5 and 7 years old) Acoustics (for children between 8 and 9 years old) Electricity (for children between 10 and 12 years old). Finally, the book contains suggestions for the conception and design of children's parties with a scientific and technical focus, which can be carried out regardless of age. KON TE XIS has tried to make this extensive work and method booklet as clear and varied as possible. Theory and practice are equally taken into account. In the context of this publication, too, we would like to encourage you, dear readers, not to underestimate children. They are naturally science-oriented and need wind in their sails as well as space to be able to trace their interests and curiosity. Have fun accompanying children and going on discovery tours and research trips with them! Manfred Bisanz Project Manager KON TE XIS 3
4 CONTENTS Introduction ... Page 05 ASTRONOMY project sketch Completely detached from the earth Children explore space ... Page 08 ACOUSTICS project sketch eavesdropping ... Page 25 ELECTRICITY project sketch Secretly hidden ... Page 33 Suggestions for the design and conception of children's parties with a focus on science and technology Children that will be a party! ... Page 57 Closing words ... Page 74 4 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
5 INTRODUCTION Scientific and technical educational processes and basic experiences Research has always started with a look into and an interest in the unknown and astonishment at what we see. This curiosity and lust have remained unchanged since the dawn of mankind. Of course, the technical possibilities of observing scientific phenomena have developed and refined enormously today. For example, modern telescopes today perceive the existence of unimaginably distant celestial bodies and galaxies, the image of the processes in the human body or the structure of substances actually seems to have changed. However, many of today's findings are based on the findings of historical science and are still valid, even if the descriptions and scientific definitions have changed. In their development, children repeat ancient human experiences. You dedicate yourself to the phenomena of the world with persistent perseverance and initially find your own and sometimes miraculous explanations. A large part of the findings of scientists from previous epochs are not dismissed by us as either cute or ridiculous, as they form the basis of our knowledge today. So we should also value our children's research and early discoveries just as seriously! When children begin to research, they should be able to devote themselves to the phenomena in an extensive and self-determined manner, without first having to deal with adult or scientific terms and explanatory models. Questions are more important than answers! That seems paradoxical at first, because we adults want to convey something about the world to children and give answers to their thousand probing questions. It is also less about denying children answers and thus access to our knowledge, and more about recognizing the potential that lies in their why-questions. Not infrequently we are afraid of not knowing the right answer. Even adults quickly reach the limits of their knowledge on many topics. Rather, the children's questions lead to the ways in which they gain knowledge: in their research projects, children do not ask for explanatory terms, but rather look for regularities. When I let go of the stone, it falls down again and again. The reliability with which the same thing happens over and over again conveys security and helps to classify phenomena via simple causal relationships and to recognize the underlying physical rule. The basic knowledge gained through observation and experimentation is that scientific phenomena do not occur arbitrarily, but rather follow certain patterns and laws. Once a law has been recognized, it can easily be shaken again: If everything that is not held down falls down, i.e. the stone or a cocoa cup, why do the birds, the planes or the clouds stay up in the sky? In order to decipher this new riddle, closer observation is required again: What do birds, clouds and airplanes do differently than stones and cocoa cups? Here, too, after more detailed research, new explanatory patterns can be found that may shake or expand the old ones. According to an anecdote, Isaac Newton asked himself the same question hundreds of years ago when, lying under a tree, he pondered why the ripe apple almost fell on his head but not the moon. Starting from an everyday observation and a simple question, a complex theory has developed, that of the gravitation or the force of attraction of the masses. Newton found that it is the same force that makes the apple fall from the tree, but also keeps the moon in its orbit around the earth - namely the force of gravity. 5
6 INTRODUCTION THE COURAGE TO HAVE YOUR OWN IDEA - Developing a concept for children Serafina sits on the terrace and watches the setting sun. She points her finger towards the horizon and realizes: The sun can go around the corner! To do this, she draws the path of the sun as a rectangle in the air with her finger. The following conversation shows that she has made a discovery: the sun comes up again the next day after it has set. So she has to dive underground once. Going around the corner - means that she probably still perceives the earth as a smooth surface and imagines it as a table top under which one can crawl. Serafina has developed a so-called concept, an explanatory pattern for a scientific phenomenon in the sky. Not only do children ask questions of a phenomenon, they also develop reflections and make claims as to why something is as they observe it: Why does a bird not fall from the sky? Because he sings while flying! Because it is as light as a feather! Because he moves his wings! Why isn't the plane falling down? It is neither light nor does it move its wings. But there is a pilot in it. Hypotheses, assumptions and explanatory models of physical phenomena that do not correspond to the textbook opinion are by no means to be dismissed as figments and ignorance, but serve as the basis of all scientific knowledge. 6 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
7 INTRODUCTION From the children's hypotheses, we first learn what they think about things, what they have observed and have already recognized, and what they do not yet understand - based on our knowledge. It is important to recognize that there are basically no right and wrong assumptions, but that they vary according to level of knowledge, age, experience and always contain a coherent justification. It is not uncommon for the fear of uttering wrong assumptions to lead to the fact that we no longer develop our own at all, but rather seek an expert opinion and often adopt it, even without having understood it. In order to deepen and further develop knowledge that has already been gained, it is important to encourage children to confirm, change or even refute their hypotheses through new observations and experiments. Knowledge is also constantly developing and natural science never stands still. If we do research together with children, we should deal with the following points as consciously as possible in the sense of a sustainable scientific education and integrate them accordingly into our own educational work: Children need space, time and an animating environment to ask their own questions about a phenomenon or a process and to be able to research them intensively and independently. Of course we can answer questions directed at us, but one should be careful with hasty, supposedly scientific explanations. What children think about an issue should definitely be taken seriously and included in the explanation. Children want to understand phenomena from the immediate context of life. They are looking for causal connections and simple laws that can be used to organize and decipher their observations. It is more important than explaining the phenomena of the world from an adult point of view to let children themselves discover the underlying causal relationships (if-then relationships). No lasting knowledge can be gained by simply watching or imitating. The thought that the outcome of an experiment is uncertain and unpredictable may take some getting used to, but it does mean real scientific work. The starting point for joint research is observing and trying things out, which is as close as possible to the interests and everyday issues of the children. We adult companions are just as much researchers as children, even if our horizon of experience may be different. For us too there is a lot to discover, both on the subject and on our actual educational research topic itself - research by children. When working on a topic, it is best to choose the most diverse approaches possible: trials and experiments that illuminate the scientific facts, but also stories that stimulate the imagination, songs, creative designs, scenic play ... Against this background, KON TE XIS, in collaboration with the authors - Natascha Welz (introduction, project sketch astonomy), Harald Weis (project sketch electricity) and Sandy Beez (project sketches acoustics and children's parties) - developed this workbook and hopes to have given a holistic insight into the processing of scientific and technical topics with different age groups. We wish you, dear readers, a lot of fun and curiosity while reading the magazine and numerous ideas as well as the courage to anchor scientific and technical topics in your own educational practice. Sandy Beez Natascha Welz Harald Weis 7
8 ASTRONOMY Completely detached from the earth Children explore the universe Project sketch Astronomy 1. ASTRONOMY - A TOPIC FOR YOUNGER CHILDREN? Astronomy literally translated from Greek means the science of the stars. We spontaneously associate it with a complex field of research. With highly specialized equipment, telescopes, satellites, space shuttles, people venture out into space with the intention of learning to understand our living space and finding out something about our origins or future. The universe is full of unknown, difficult to decipher and often only scientifically accessible phenomena. There are all sorts of fascinating and strange celestial bodies and phenomena: planets, stars, galaxies, black holes, red giants, comets, the speed of light, space-time curvatures Universe to really care about younger children? Especially since everyday educational life in institutions takes place during the day and yet offers so little opportunity for classic night stargazing. The following project proposal, however, wants to show how earthly the topic of space can be and how many astrophysical phenomena can be found in our everyday life. In the form of age-appropriate games and experiments, children's interests can be tracked down and deepened, which ultimately prepare the basis for later, more complex scientific research projects and findings WE EXPLORE AND DISCOVER THE SPACE! Let us now embark on a journey to the numerous and diverse phenomena and celestial bodies of our universe and to just as many possibilities for the practical implementation of our topic. To use the project sketch: The Sun, Moon and Stars project can be carried out over a period of several weeks. The focus of each week would be one topic, e.g. B. Sun or Earth. Most of the games and experiments are suitable for children from the age of 5 up to elementary school age, depending on their previous experience and their own interests. What remains important in all model tests is the concrete visualization, in this project the step outside, and the exploration of the real sky. Nocturnal observation of the starry sky is sure to be neglected. Parents can be involved here to deepen concrete observations with their children. A visit to a planetarium is of course also exciting. The proposed experiments and games represent an excerpt from the variety of possibilities presented in the literature on the topic and specially developed and tested in practical work with children. In the following, I would like to introduce a direction and way of working that gives the children as much space as possible to your own questions and amazement. Therefore, the experiments and game ideas are to be understood as suggestions and suggestions. They are not a panacea for teaching astronomy, but a guide for a self-designed journey through our universe. 8 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
9 ASTRONOMY 2. THE LOOK INTO THE SKY Exploring the universe is exploring our living space. And we don't have to drive or fly far to take a closer look: A simple look up shows us a lot! The back of the moon is better explored than the deep sea, can be heard more often from research circles. As paradoxical as it sounds, we now know that there was water on Mars, but not exactly what goes on in the depths of the oceans, which cover a large part of our planet. The conditions in space are extremely hostile to life and do not exactly invite you to look around. But it is simply easier to look into the vastness of space and, above all, further than venturing towards the interior of the earth with submarines or powerful drills. This can also be easily understood with children on the playground: How deep is a hole that we dig into the sand with a lot of effort? And how far does our gaze reach when we look into the distance? Bodies visible in the sky are usually far away, sometimes unimaginably far away, and yet they all seem to hang next to each other on a kind of sky tent. The spatial depth of the universe is initially imperceptible from the earth. But our look up is our most original and most important method of investigation. A picture of heaven What is there to see up there? Use the materials to create a picture of heaven.Early children's drawings often show an earth-bound floor line and a line at the top of the picture, on which usually a sun hangs. What is there in between? Then you can share with the children what kind of celestial phenomena they have found: sun, moon, stars, planes, shooting stars, birds, clouds, angels, even the ball that you throw up. Everything belongs to heaven and everything belongs to space! After all, our earth is right in the middle of it all. aterial paper pens colors glue different magazines to cut out thematically suitable pictures but the things that no longer belong directly to our earth are more interesting. How can you even tell whether something belongs to the earth or is further away? Basically it can be said that everything that belongs to the earth always returns to it. Airplanes have to land, birds get tired and look for their nests, clouds are raining down. But there are also things that always stay up in the sky. Most of them are bright points of light that can only be seen at night because it is too bright during the day. What is any different when we look at the sky at night? Do we see more things, less or different? To address this question, you can design a sky yourself, creating a starting point and topic of conversation for further research. Some basic knowledge can already be deepened here: There are different light phenomena in the sky. We call them stars, planets, sun, moon. There is light and dark, day and night and always with a certain change. Day and night are different: at night it is not only darker, but also colder. 9
10 ASTRONOMY 3. WHERE DOES THE LIGHT COME FROM? THE SUN OUR LIFE GIVER If you ask younger children where they live, they will show us their children's room, the apartment, the street. As a rule, they also know the city and the country in which they grow up. But our address has another important addition: We live on earth, i.e. on a planet. How do we actually notice that? The fact that it gets light in the morning and dark again in the evening refers us to an important and vital astronomical law: The earth rotates and is illuminated by the sun, a nearby star. On earth we experience this changing lighting as Run of the sun. The earth's own rotation is imperceptible to us and so it seems as if the sun is moving around us. The sun determines the rhythm of life, which is divided into days and nights. We associate positive and life-giving properties with the sun. The dear sun that drives away the dark night is sung about in innumerable songs and verses. A place in the sun is a blissful place. Soberly and scientifically, the sun is a gigantic force field. More than a hundred times larger than the earth, it consists of exploding gases and releases enormous amounts of energy in the process. We benefit from this on earth! Fortunately, we are far enough away. Where do we feel the power of the sun? What can the sun do and what does it do for us? How do the earth and the sun relate to each other? How does it affect life on earth? Experiments relating to the sun First of all, everyday observations relating to the sun can be collected together with the children, such as: B: The sun can only be seen in the sky during the day and not at night. The sun is very bright. You can't look inside. On very sunny days you need sunglasses because it's so bright everywhere. When the sky is cloudy you can't see the sun, but it's still bright. Plants grow in the sun. The sun shines longer in summer than in winter. At this time, the sun is not as warm for a long time. The sun warms. It stings your skin on very sunny days. You quickly start to sweat and have to put some lotion on to protect yourself. The sun dries water. It makes puddles disappear. The following experiments encourage us to clarify the observations made above and the assumptions made therefrom. Sun and plant growth instructions Plant the seeds of cress or similar fast-growing herbs in a bowl with cotton wool or in small flower pots. One pot is placed on the windowsill in the sun, the other in the shade, e.g. B. under a shoebox. Both pots are watered regularly for a few days. aterial Cress seeds Cotton bowls or flower pots Water observation The cress in the sun clearly thrives, the cress under the box does not develop at all. If anything grows at all, it doesn't have that distinctive green color. Clarification The cress in the shade does not thrive because the sun, and above all its light, is necessary for the plants to produce the green chlorophyll they need for their metabolism. The sun is therefore absolutely necessary for growth, i.e. for life. 10 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
11 ASTRONOMY How does light behave? These experiments deal with some essential properties of light. The sun is the light. It is the central light source in our planetary system. Without the sun it would always be pitch black. aterially very darkened room (as pitch-dark as possible) directed light source (e.g. a slide projector, a powerful, bright flashlight, etc.) 1. First, simply switch the light source on and off a few times. It is important that the light source is not too strong scatters and forms a clearly defined circle of light as far as possible. What actually changes when the light source is switched on and off? It gets light and dark; when it is dark no one can see anything. Our eyes can only see things that are illuminated. 2. Now direct the light to a wall and try to make the light beam from the lamp clearly visible. The clear, straight beam of a slide projector can often be seen quite well. If in doubt, you can help with dusty particles that are scattered into the light beam: flour, talc or the smoke of a blown candle. The light beam only goes straight ahead. A ray of light only goes straight ahead until it hits an impenetrable body. 3. The light source is aimed at a wall or a sheet of paper. A bright circle will appear there. Then take a mirror, redirect the light and let it strike again at another point. The light beam also only spreads in a straight line. It can be redirected, but only on straight paths. Light can only spread in a straight line, which is why we cannot look around the corner. Seeing means nothing other than that a ray of light, reflected from an object, falls into our eye. Light propagates in a straight line from its source and also from the illuminated body that reflects it. 4. In the following, various objects are held in the light beam for testing: For example, a hand is brightly lit and leaves a shadow on the wall. The light beam cannot wander around the hand or an object. A shadow is created on the wall. Due to its exclusively straight course, the light beam cannot wander around the hand or an object and hit the wall behind it. Another property of light should have been noticed in all experiments: light is everywhere immediately. It doesn't seem to need time for its way. In reality it takes some time, but it is so extremely fast, namely km per second, that we do not notice it. The special properties of light also become clear when differentiated from sound. People can e.g. B. can be heard around the corner, because sound waves propagate completely differently around their source. On the other hand, sound is significantly slower than light. During a thunderstorm we notice the light of the lightning strike immediately, the thunder follows slowly a little later. 11
12 ASTRONOMY Light and Shadow - Day and Night The experiments with the properties of light seem important to me because they tell us the fundamentals about the shape and paths of the heavenly bodies. The universe is a gigantic space, filled with more or less spherical objects, some of which emit light themselves, some of which are illuminated. If celestial bodies did not have a spherical shape, they could not be illuminated in a specific way. Instructions Hold the ball or the styrofoam ball in the light source. You can clearly see a light and a shadow side. Since the light can only go straight ahead, it cannot shine on the rear side of our celestial body. Then mark a spot on the ball and turn it slowly. You can see how the marked area is bathed in light at regular intervals or disappears in the shadow. In this way, day and night also come about on earth. Day and night always rule simultaneously on earth, in different places. There is always a day and a night. Since we are not sitting in a space shuttle and can look at it from the outside, the only evidence left is a globe and picking up the phone: Call a country on the other side of the world and ask if it is light there or is dark! aterial ball or large styrofoam ball directed light source (e.g. a slide projector, a powerful, bright flashlight, etc.) Climate zones and seasons - location and migration of the earth nleitung Place a piece of chocolate under the lamp. The best thing to do is to wrap the piece in some aluminum foil and leave only the upper side exposed to the light. The chocolate will get warm and sticky after a while. Turn off the lamp and it will lock again. In this respect, it is also a good thing that the sun does not shine down on us permanently, then at some point, just like chocolate, it would get too warm for us. Chocolate lamp Aluminum foil aterial explanation On earth it is not always the same warm! There are hot deserts, but also ice-cold, icy poles. How does that come about? Why are there so-called seasons with changing temperatures? The earth by no means only revolves around itself, it also wanders in a large, circular orbit around the sun. In addition, it is slightly inclined and is not illuminated equally strong and long in all places during the day (see the experiment with the marked styrofoam ball in the lamp cone). In the case of chocolate, we could see that the duration of exposure to light is a decisive factor in the development of heat and the melting process. Not only the duration is decisive, but also the proximity to the light or heat source and the angle of incidence of the light. A piece of chocolate placed at an angle under the lamp will not soften as quickly as one placed directly under it. A piece of chocolate that is far away remains very hard. It is similar with the earth, which wanders around the sun in the course of a year and receives different amounts of light and heat depending on its position. To find out how much light the earth gets from the sun, you don't have to go out into space: you can see it from the earth. In winter the sun shines much shorter than in summer, and in summer it is also much steeper. 12 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
13 ASTRONOMY Shadow games and sundials For younger children it is exciting and informative to explore the position of the sun in their immediate vicinity and to follow it over a longer period of time. For example, at suitable places in your own facility, be it a window sill, a piece of wall or the floor in front of the window, where the sunlight falls can be drawn. Can the incident light be drawn in permanently, e.g. B. over a period of a few hours, days or weeks, it is easy to see how the light moves or the position of the sun changes. The same of course works just as well with the opposite of light, the shadow. If you draw your own shadow outside with chalk around noon and then again in the same place later in the afternoon, you will notice two changes: The shadow is in a different place and much longer. This means that the sun has moved in the sky and is also a little lower. In reality, of course, the earth itself has moved and inclined towards the sun, but what is clearly observable should be in the foreground, especially for smaller children. It is also important for further research on the movements of the celestial bodies to recognize that the light conditions are constantly changing, and in a very specific rhythm. This rhythm is the basis for our time measurement. The sundials are among the oldest clocks and these can be easily reproduced: aterial a sunny place a stick or stick (e.g. a broomstick) if necessary a flower pot instructions The sundial can consist of a broomstick set up in the garden or a small flower pot with a stick in it on the window sill. You enter the time division yourself on a scale by dragging the shadow at certain times of the day and writing the time next to it. If the sunlight is sufficient to form a shadow, the time can be determined relatively precisely. Explanation The dial of these mechanical clocks or the so-called clockwise direction is based on the course of the real sun, at least in the northern hemisphere of the earth. In the southern hemisphere, however, the sun does not move in the zenith to the south, but to the north (to the equator). The course of the year Very small children may have just experienced a course of the year exactly once or twice. However, you will experience that at certain times it is colder and darker, at other times it is lighter and warmer. All growth on earth is determined by the seasons. With this phenomenon, too, it is initially not entirely obvious that the earth moves around the sun and not the sun around the earth. One can prove this fact from the earth, because the nightly starry sky changes in the course of the year with regular recurrence. But this is still difficult to observe for younger children. In a joint game you can simulate the trajectory of the earth around the sun and at the same time create an association with the seasons: a child dresses up as the sun and stands in the middle. A circle is drawn around it. Now distribute objects that symbolize spring, summer, autumn and winter at four points and that the children choose themselves. Older children can also design fields for each individual month. Now an earth child goes on his journey around the sun child. Suitable songs or verses can be played at the individual seasonal stations. If there is a designed field for each month, the earth child can best set off in the month of their birth, because after a year of flying around the sun they will come back to their next birthday. In this way, the abstract time span of one year can be illustrated and the relationship between this time course and the migration of our planet around the sun can be established. 13th
14 ASTRONOMY 4. THE MOON OUR TRABANT AND NEXT HEAVENLY BODY From the wise shepherd to the inanimate stone ball Aesthetic and scientific interests in the moon A moon, says two-year-old Ida and points up to the sky. It is difficult to understand that this luminous object with its constantly changing position and shape should be one and the same celestial body. The sun and moon, although very far apart, are almost the same size in the sky. Nevertheless, one can easily distinguish them. The moon can also be seen during the day, and the children still sees that have actually seen the moon. You can't look directly at the sun, it's so bright. The moon, on the other hand, is more easily recognizable up there by its darkly spotted surface. Depending on the phase of the moon, it is already like the moon in the late afternoon or early in the morning. gen to see. The full moon, however, reaches its zenith at midnight and shines all night. Briefly ask the children, without thinking too much, to draw a moon. Probably every moon looks different: sometimes the classic sickle, sometimes a circle, maybe with a few indicated craters or with a nose and a man in the moon. Two children argue in the morning: What is shining up there: the sun or the moon? It's already light, it must be the sun. The moon can only be seen at night! The different phases of the moon and the changing times of rising and setting are quite a tricky phenomenon, but easy to observe. The moon comes a little later every evening and gets a little thicker every evening until it's completely round. It actually makes sense, because when you get bigger, you also get more cumbersome and come a little later! The funny thing is that the moon is now thinning again and comes even later. Then he's gone for a while and the same game starts all over again. If we count the days in between, it is almost exactly 29, almost a whole month. Where is the moon if we don't see it? Why is it sometimes thinner, sometimes thicker? Is it actually losing and gaining substance? Do you see the moon standing there, it is only half visible, and yet it is round and beautiful! So there are some things that we confidently laugh at because our eyes do not see them! The well-known verse from Matthias Claudius' lullaby describes this very well. The moon is always round and beautiful, even if we sometimes cannot see it with our eyes. The moon, like the earth, is a sphere that circles through space. Just as the earth orbits the sun in a year, the moon orbits the earth in a month.In the previous experiments we saw that we can only see the sun when our side of the globe is facing it. Sunlight does not penetrate the shadowy side of the globe. Just as little light falls on the shadowy side of the lunar sphere. That is also the reason why we only ever see part of it, namely the illuminated part. The big difference between the sun and the moon is that the moon does not shine itself, but only the sunlight is reflected back to us. 14 KON TE XIS - Projects Approximate size comparison: Sun - Earth - Moon Since the sun is much further away, it appears to us to be almost as big as the moon.
15 ASTRONOMY The moon does not shine by itself introduction explanation It's roughly the same with the moon. We just see its surface illuminated by the sun. Sometimes you see more and sometimes less, depending on where the moon faces the earth. If you illuminate a large white ball from the front and then look at it from the side or diagonally from behind, you can see the characteristic sickle shape that the shadow leaves on the ball. Every night the moon moves a little further and so you always see a little more illuminated surface, but less after the full moon. The new moon is not invisible to us because at this time it is on our day side and the brightness outshines it, but because it turns its unlit side towards us. The light source illuminates the table around which you sit with the children. Perhaps some of the reflectors sparkle particularly strongly, almost like small flashlights. And yet they only shine when light falls on them, which they can send on again. If the light source goes out, they also disappear again in the dark. aterial strongly darkened room (as pitch dark as possible) directed light source (e.g. a slide projector, a powerful, bright flashlight, etc.) a table reflectors (e.g. jackets or backpacks with reflectors) it is important for all model tests around the moon, to deepen the understanding of the children that the moon can always be seen in its entirety, but only the illuminated part of its surface can be seen. Its shadow part merges with the blackness of the universe at the same time. It is not uncommon for the view that the moon is caused by something else, e.g. is covered by the earth's shadow and is therefore not fully visible. This phenomenon only occurs during a lunar eclipse. The full moon does not darken completely, but is dipped into a deep red color by the scattered light of the sun. In order to deepen the sequence of the moon phases, diverse playful impulses can be set again: Moon and earth children This time a moon child walks around an earth child in a dark room in which a strong light source (our sun) shines from the side in the direction of the children. A strong, wide-spread lamp, e.g. B. a construction spotlight. The moon child always turns his face to the earth child, because from the earth we only ever see the same side of the moon. The earth child is best placed in the middle so as not to shadow the moon child. From here it can observe which side of the moon child is illuminated by the sun. Moon clock You can make a simple moon clock from a paper plate. Mount a pointer in the middle with the help of a sample bag clamp. Then draw the individual phases of the moon on the edge. You can now turn the pointer a little further from night to night, depending on how the moon appears in the real sky. This creates a feeling for the duration of a lunar cycle. 15th
16 ASTRONOMY The man in the moon - a rugged surface Looking at the moon is really fun. Unlike the small points of light from other stars and planets, we can see a lot on them with the naked eye or good binoculars. As in the clouds, every child can discover their own image in it. Images of the moon Using photocopies of the surface of the moon, the children can draw their ideas in the moon: a moon face, a hare in the moon or the man in the moon. The lunar surface has an exciting story. Their shape was created differently than that of the earth. The earth still has a fluid interior. Mountain ranges and valleys have formed as a result of volcanic events and shifts in the hard earth's crust on the magma. Lunar landscape and meteorite impact The moon has long since cooled down. Its rugged surface is the result of the impact of numerous meteorites, i.e. stones or pieces of metal racing through space. In contrast to the moon, the earth has an atmosphere of air in which such particles burn up before they hit the earth's surface and cause damage there. The moon lacks this protective cover, and so is - or rather was - at the mercy of these attacks. aterial nleitung You can create a lunar landscape with simple means. Moist sand or a mixture of flour and oil, which can be kneaded wonderfully, is suitable. Spread the sand or mixture on a table or large plate and smooth the surface first. Then the hail of meteorites can begin. Let the stones, peas, marbles, or thick heavy steel or wooden balls fall onto the surface. There are clear traces left in the form of the classic moon craters. moist sand flour oil stones, peas, marbles, steel or wooden balls, etc. observation What can be clearly seen: the craters are much larger than the objects that cause them. But where do the meteorites disappear to after their impact? Are they thrown back into space? We have to take the balls and stones out of the hole ourselves. In reality, meteorites are destroyed by the force of the impact. Parts of it go down as a kind of ring-shaped hail of stones nearby. At best, a different, cosmic material can be found in the ground at the point of impact. 16 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
17 ASTRONOMY Moon rocks and lunar landscapes aterial introduction A gentler and at the same time more permanent method of modeling a lunar landscape is the so-called stone clay. It is a simple salt and flour dough, stretched with coffee grounds and possibly some sand. This gives the dough a somewhat coarser, earthy substance. An imaginative relief can now be kneaded on a paper plate or a larger surface. After drying, you can illuminate it with a flashlight and create beautiful light and shadow effects, similar to the dark and light spots on the moon. The modeling clay can also be used wonderfully to hide mysterious little objects in it and to bake it in. Instead of an entire landscape, you can also create small moon rocks that contain small treasures. After drying, the stones can be broken open again, surprisingly revealing their interior. 1 cup flour 1 cup coffee grounds ½ cup salt ¼ - ½ cup water if necessary some sand nice things to petrify, like. z. B. marbles, rhinestones, coarse sea salt, chalk dust, glitter, decorative stones, mini dinosaurs, mussels First mix the ingredients and add just enough water until a smooth dough is formed. Then bake the dough for about 1.5 hours at a maximum of 100 degrees or let it air dry. In between it is advisable to turn the dough. If the dough dries in the air, it remains a little lighter and more brittle. A dough baked in the oven turns brown on the outside and stays a little softer on the inside. Baking in the oven is better for breaking open the stones with your bare hands. Please note that a shaped relief should not be placed in the oven together with the paper plate. You should also make sure that baked-in items are temperature-resistant. When designing the lunar landscape, but also independently of it, it is very worthwhile to look at real maps of the moon, especially the names of the craters and areas, so-called mare. This name goes back to an earlier erroneous assumption that the dark areas on the moon are bodies of water. For your own lunar landscape, you can invent new names for elevations and depths with the children. 17th
18 ASTRONOMY Zodiac Sign: Scorpio 5. EARTH, MOON AND SUN ARE NOT ALONE! Other planets and celestial bodies I have devoted a lot of time to contemplating the sun and moon, as they are the closest, most important and most influential celestial bodies for earthly life. They are easy to observe, especially for younger children. We tend to find out about other objects in space second-hand, from books, photos and reports from astronomers and astronauts. Nevertheless, it is exciting to take an even deeper look into the vastness of space and move away from the earth in the slipstream of space travelers and rockets. Big or small, we are all equally impressed by the multitude of points of light in the starry night sky, which are best seen at a new moon and in the distance from cities and large sources of light. How small we are, in view of this endless expanse! How cozy and dear our earth is to us - it is the only place where we humans can live! But what else is there that is still fascinating to discover out there! I was once on vacation on an island. There was a wheelbarrow in the sky at night. It was made of stars, says five-year-old Lulu proudly. This is a constellation and is called the big dipper, is the dry answer of her friend of the same age. This shows the simultaneity of imagination, enthusiasm and sober scientific knowledge, which are so close together on this topic. Constellations have many meanings. On the one hand, they sort the endless and confused multitude of lights in the sky. They have a long history and point to the myths and stories of our ancestors. On the other hand, they are important in astrology and character studies and last but not least serve as an extremely practical orientation and navigation aid. They are a kind of guide in the universe, even if they are composed by human arbitrariness. Stars are the light sources in our universe. In contrast to the planets, they themselves emit light, just like our sun. Even younger children often already know the zodiac sign of the month they were born and identify with it. So there is a personal relationship to the stars. They shine for us. Zodiac sign gazer aterial instructions In this small, simple handicraft work every child can build their own zodiac sign gazer. Glue a piece of black construction paper to the opening of the cardboard tube. There you then stick the needle in the shape of a corresponding zodiac sign. If you hold the tube in the light and look into it, you are surrounded by the cozy blackness of the night sky with your personal stars. a cardboard tube (e.g. a used kitchen roll) black construction paper a needle or a pricker It is worthwhile to read out a few of the myths and stories about the ancient constellations and to understand this as a suggestion, perhaps one of your own, to our modern life to think of adapted constellations; these too are certainly to be found in the mass of stars in the sky! Zodiac sign: Sagittarius
19 ASTRONOMY Our planets Our sun is orbited by some other celestial bodies in addition to the earth, the planets of the solar system. In order these are: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (according to recent research, Pluto is no longer a planet.) It is interesting how much the planets differ in shape, size and material. Everyone seems completely unique. There is only life on earth. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are closest to the Sun and have a solid consistency. The other planets, which are beyond an asteroid belt when viewed from the sun, consist only of gas. Planetary turntable There is now a veritable flood of books with beautiful views of the planets, which also bring out their fascinating and different shapes. You can look at these together with the children and discuss which questions the children develop on the topic. Instructions The planetary turntable consists of 8 circles that you cut out of cardboard or construction paper in increasingly larger radii. The circles are placed on top of one another and fastened with a sample bag clamp. The bracket can be decorated with a sun. Then glue the corresponding planet to the edge of each disc, which can now rotate around the sun with the other planets. aterial cardboard or construction paper sample bag clips adhesive pictures of the planets of our solar system planets mobilé aterial shashlik skewers or other wooden sticks paper felt, scraps of cloth etc. A simple and imaginative little tinkered planet model is a mobilé. nleitung Tie the kebab skewers or other wooden sticks together and knot them again - pay attention to the balance - the heavenly bodies. These can be made from felt, scraps of fabric, paper, etc. It is exciting to observe which earthly objects clearly get their place in space in this way. Occasionally, cars and houses hang on the model of the sky on an equal footing between comets and planets. For younger children, the nearby supermarket is almost as exciting and unknown as the rest of the universe. 19th
20 ASTRONOMY Alien Worlds With younger children it is sometimes more rewarding and exciting to approach the vastness of space in an imaginative way than to deal too much with the often unimaginable facts. These will be added later. Nevertheless, the fantasy should not distract from reality, but rather help decipher it. Much unknown is out there! What else could there be? How do I imagine it there? Are there other inhabited planets anywhere? What could they look like? What kind of residents would they have? What would these beings eat, what would they wear, or how would they move? The universe is so big and unexplored that we actually cannot prove whether what we are thinking about does not exist somewhere. The universe often serves as a projection surface for our earthly desires, dreams and fears. My own planet task is to invent and sculpt my own planet. As a rule, children find it much easier than adults to think up their own worlds and implement them in games. You immerse yourself with great vigor and deep seriousness in your fantasy world, which can exist alongside everyday life without any problems. A good choice of materials, enough space and time to shape the new little world, let it grow and explore it is important for the newly invented planet. It is beneficial for the children to work together in small groups in order to ensure more exchange with one another. The base plate made of wood or foam offers a concrete starting point for handicrafts. You must certainly provide assistance with the assembly of the components. Plastic remnants in particular are sometimes not so easy to install. Otherwise, the children should have a free run here. However, motivating support is definitely welcome. You can, for example, ask questions about what is going on in the small cosmic world or create narrative occasions and help to develop a correct planet profile. aterial common craft materials and many recycling materials, such as. B. packaging, foils, transparent pudding cups, corks, closures, etc. a kind of base plate made of wood or foam, such as. B. a large cardboard lid or a box of glue pens or paints scissors planet profile What kind of beings live there? Did I discover them on my space flight or am I from there myself? How far is my planet from earth? What's his name? What language is spoken there? What kind of vehicles or missiles do the residents use? Does it look the same as it does on Earth or is it completely different? Do the aliens have pets too? Do you also go to school? Do you have supernatural abilities? Here it is important for us, great companions, to listen carefully to the stories and to observe and document the construction and development process carefully. If you get involved, you will learn a lot of exciting things about what children think about the universe. How do they imagine it and what might be the meaning behind it? What scientific or technical knowledge do you already have and can you deepen in the game? 20 KON TE XIS - Experience: Project!
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