How do modern taxonomists classify living organisms

Living organisms: habitat. Environmental factors, their general characteristics

By habitat we mean the space used by living organisms to exist. Thus the topic is relevant to the question of the life of a creature. There are four types of habitats, in addition there are various factors that transform external influences, so they must also be taken into account.


So what is the animal living environment? Definition appeared in the nineteenth century - in the work of the Russian physiologist Sechenov. Every living organism is constantly interacting with surrounding phenomena, which it was decided to call the environment. His role is twofold. On the one hand, all the vital processes of organisms are directly related to it - so the animals receive food, they are affected by climate and natural selection. Yet their existence is no less environmental impact, defining it in many ways. Plants keep the balance of oxygen and shade of the earth, animals make it crumbly. Almost every change causes organisms. Habitat needs a comprehensive study of anyone who wants to have an understanding of biology. It is also important to know that some creatures can live in different conditions. Amphibians are born in water and often hibernate and feed on land. Beetles, living in the air, often need soil or water to reproduce.

Symbiosis and Parasitism

Surprisingly, animal habitat can be limited by other animals. So, in humans, there are all kinds of representatives of the microflora, and sometimes, as well as flatworms or roundworms. Use from one company to another in one environment is a very common situation that has been present throughout evolution. Practically all animal species do not exist in which there would be no internal parasite. These roles are the algae, amoeba, ciliates. In view of this phenomenon, it is very important to learn to distinguish between parasitism and symbiosis. In the first case of animal habitat, they are used to the detriment of the body in which they are located. Parasites lives on its master alone, it doesn't kill him. Symbiosis is also useful for both sides of life that brings problems and leads solely to the benefits.


The aquatic environment - a collection of all the oceans, seas, glaciers, and continental waters on the planet, known as the hydrosphere, but also sometimes it is the Antarctic snow, atmospheric fluid, and those found in living organisms. It takes up more than seventy percent of the surface of the sphere with the mass in the oceans and seas. Water is an integral part of the biosphere, not just bodies of water, but also air and soil. Every organism is necessary for survival. In addition, the water is made up from the neighboring planet earth. In addition, she played an important role in the development of life. It accumulates the organic and inorganic substances that transfers heat, forms the climate and is contained in both animal and plant cells. That is why the water environment - one of the most important.


The mixture of gases forming in the earth's atmosphere is essential for all living things. Evolution towards the air, since oxygen forms a high metabolism, which determines the structure of the respiratory tract and the water-salt exchange. Weight, composition, moisture - all of these have serious consequences for the planet. Oxygen was formed 2 billion years ago during volcanic activity, after which its proportion in the air increases steadily. Modern human environment distinguishes 21% th content of this element. An important part of this is also the ozone layer, which does not allow UV radiation to reach the earth's surface. Without it, life on the planet could be destroyed. Now surely human environment is threatened - the ozone layer is being destroyed due to the negative environmental processes. This leads to the need for conscious behavior and constant selection of the best not only for people but also for earth choices.


Many living things inhabit the earth. Habitat is also used to plants that serve as food for the majority of the planet's living things. It cannot determine whether the soil is inanimate shape, so it is called bioinert body. By definition is a substance that is processed in the activity of organisms. The soil habitat is composed of a solid mass that is composed of sand, clay and silt particles; a liquid component; Gas - air; live - are creatures inhabit it, all kinds of microorganisms, invertebrates, bacteria, fungi and insects. Each hectare of land is home to five tons of such shapes. Soil habitat lies between water and land and air and thus living organisms it are often characterized by a combination of ventilation mode. Meeting such creatures can even be to an impressive depth.

The interaction of organisms and the environment

Every creature differs from inanimate nature by the presence of metabolic and cellular organization. Interaction with the environment takes place continuously and should be investigated in a complex process due to the complexity. Every organism depends on what is happening around. Soil-air-human environment influences precipitation, soil conditions and temperature range. Some of the procedures that are common to the organism, some are indifferent, others are harmful. Everyone has their own definition. For example homeostasis - constancy of the internal systems that are different living beings. Habitat can be recognized, requires adaptation to change - movements, growth, development. Metabolism - Metabolism is accompanied by chemical reactions as breathing is made easier. Chemosynthesis build-up process of organic sulfur compounds or nitrogen. Finally, it is worth remembering the definition of ontogeny. It is a combination of the changes in the body that affect all environmental factors throughout the period of its existence.

Environmental factors

For a better understanding of biological processes, it is also necessary to study the definition. Environmental factors are complex environmental conditions that affect the living organism. They are divided into different types according to the classification of a complex. Adaptation to the body means adaptation, and its appearance, which reflects environmental factors, is the name of the way of life.


This is one of the types of environmental factors that affect living organisms. Habitat excludes salts and elements from the incoming water and food. Biogenic are those that are necessary for the body in large quantities. For example, it is phosphorus, for the formation of protoplasm, and nitrogen, the basis for protein molecules. It is the source of the first dead organisms and rocks, and the second - the atmospheric air. The lack of phosphorus affects existence almost as acutely as lack of water. Slightly inferior to the value of such elements as calcium, potassium, magnesium and sulfur. The first is necessary for the shells and bones. Potassium supplies the nervous system and the growth of plants. Magnesium is part of the chlorophyll molecule, and ribosomes and sulfur - in the composition of amino acids and vitamins.

Abiotic environmental factors

There are also other processes that affect living organisms. Habitat includes factors such as light, climate and the like, which by definition are abiotic. They are indispensable processes of respiration and photosynthesis, metabolism and seasonal migration, reproduction of many animals. First of all, the light is important. Taking into account the length, intensity and duration of exposure. According to him, the whole classification is assigned, studying biology. Habitat, full of light, need heliophyte - meadow and steppe grasses, weeds, plants of the tundra. Stsiofitam needs shade, pull it to live under the canopy of the forest - a forest of grass. Optional heliophyte can adapt to conditions. This class includes trees, strawberries, geranium. An equally important factor is temperature. Every organism has a specific area for a comfortable life. Water, the presence of chemicals in the soil, and even fires - they are also affects abiotic areas.

biotic factors

Soil-to-air habitat is filled with living organisms. Their interaction with each other - a single factor worth considering. Two important types of biotic processes should be shared. The reaction can be phytogenic. This means that the process involves plants and microorganisms affecting each other and the environment. For example, the fusion of roots, parasitism on vine trees, legumes and symbiosis of bacteria living on the tubers. The second type - zoogenic factors. This exposure of animals. This includes its use in food, spreading seeds, bark damage, destruction of seedlings, thinning of forests, the transmission of diseases.

human activity

Water, air or terrestrial habitat are always associated with human activities. People actively change the world around them, greatly influencing its processes. Anthropogenic factors are any exposure, landscape or biosphere. It can be direct when directed at living things, e.g. false hunting and fishing undermines the numbers of some species. Another option is an indirect effect when a person changes the landscape, the climate, the state of air and water, soil structure. Consciously or unconsciously, but humans destroy many species of animals and plants for others to care for. So there is a new environment. There are also occasional bumps, such as sudden delivery of foreign organisms with a load, poor drainage swamps, dam creation, distribution of pests. however some are going extinct without human intervention, so being responsible for all environmental issues is just unfair.

limiting factors

All possible influence exerted on organisms from all sides is manifested in varying degrees. Sometimes these are the key substances that require a minimal amount. Accordingly, the law has been developed minimum. He suggests that the weakest link in the organism's needs chain is considered to be its endurance in general. So if the soil has all the elements except one needed for growth - the harvest will be bad. If you just add missing ones, leave everyone else in the same amount - it will get better. If we all add the rest without correcting the shortcoming, no changes will be made. The missing element in this situation and its a limiting factor. However, one should consider the maximum effect. It describes Shelford's law of tolerance, assuming that there is only one area in which factor can be beneficial to the body more than it becomes harmful. Suppression - Ideal conditions are called the optimal range and deviation from the norm. Highs and lows effects are the name of the critical points followed by the body's existence is impossible. Levels of tolerance to certain conditions differ for each living being and allow them to be classified as more or less hardy varieties.