How old is brick from the middle

history

The history of the brick

IN THE FIRST BOOK OF MOSES STATES:

"Wohlauf,

let's paint bricks and burn them! "
And taking bricks for stone and resin for lime, they said,
"Well, let's build a city and a tower, the top of which reaches up to the sky, so that we can make a name for ourselves"! "

But in the lifetime of this legislature, the brick had a long history; perhaps it is as old as humanity itself. What is certain, however, is that the brick was used at the beginning of the cultures we know.

START OF BRICK MANUFACTURING:

In Egypt, Nile mud was mixed with a little camel dung, shaped into the desired shape and dried in the sun. in the Mesopotamia was already 4000 years BC. Brick burned. 1000 years later, brick construction reached a high point there. At that time, bricks could already be made in a wide variety of colors. The first monumental temple buildings, such as the one in Uruk, also fell during this period. Around 2000 BC The original building of the tower of Babylon mentioned at the beginning was created, which was destroyed several times, but just as often rebuilt in the same place. Even today there are houses and huts in the area that were built from the millennia-old bricks from the Tower of Babel. The bricks that can still be found there are so hard and sharp-edged, as if they had just been made.

HIGH CULTURES IN TWO STREAM:

Excavations in Babylon show that the part of the city east of the Euphrates alone covered an area of ​​four million square meters. This part of the city was protected by brick walls, the crowns of which could be driven over by four-in-hand carriages. Already at the beginning of the civilizations in Mesopotamia, decorative walls were built from bricks. The most prominent examples are probably the processional street from the Ishtar Gate to the city of Bab-ili, which King Nebuchadnezzar had built, and which was built by the Persian King Darius I around 500 BC. AD palace in Susa.

BRICKS IN OTHER CULTURES:

The development of brick building in the cultures of Persia, India, Indochina, China and the Islamic cultures would lead too far To describe the room. Islamic culture in particular has achieved a mastery in the ornamental use of bricks that has never been achieved. It should also be mentioned that the tile has developed differently in China: Here the roof - and thus the roof tile - is becoming a dominant element for the first time. The roof is not only responsible for covering and protecting, here the roof is the actual building itself.

THE BRICK IN THE OLD ROME:

The art of brick making was spread throughout the West by the Romans. Wherever their campaigns led, they brought the brick with them. The practical sense of the Romans immediately understood the advantages of the brick for the construction of vaults, as numerous examples still preserved today prove. With the dominant position of the brick in the Roman Empire, it had become the preferred building block of the entire world.

CENTERS OF BRICK CONSTRUCTION IN THE MIDDLE AGES:

In the Middle Ages, Lombardy, France and Germany developed as centers of brick construction from the twelfth century. The brick was more and more popular from the Romanesque to the Gothic to the Renaissance. Magnificent brick buildings made of hand-blown bricks in all shades can be found above all in northern European countries, especially in northern Germany, Belgium, Holland, Scandinavia and England.

MACHINE BRICK PRODUCTION:

The English were the first to introduce mechanical brick production. However, groundbreaking developments in the brick industry were made in Germany: The first usable extrusion press from the Berlin manufacturer Schlickeysen (1854) and the ring furnace from the builder Friedrich Hoffmann, registered as a Prussian and Austrian patent in 1858.

BRICK PRODUCTION IN AUSTRIA:

Up until 200 years ago, brick production in Austria was initially in the hands of wandering Italian families who looked for clay deposits on site, produced the bricks and were often involved in the construction of the buildings. Their influence can still be seen today in the ornamental barn grilles of old farmhouses. Brick ovens were initially built directly for the individual building projects and were only used for this. Later counties and monasteries kept their own brickworks - exclusively for their own needs. This also explains that, historically speaking, a total of around 5,000 brick factories with around 20,000 bricks can be assumed in Austria alone.

INDUSTRIAL BRICK MANUFACTURING IN AUSTRIA:

In the middle of the 18th century, at the instigation of Empress Maria Theresa, the k.u.k. Brick kiln built on Wienerberg. Around 1780, one million masonry bricks were already being produced annually in this production facility. In 1820, several surrounding factories were connected and in 1849 the company was already producing 30 million masonry bricks and four million facing bricks. Construction of the first ring kilns began in 1865 and two years later the Wienerberger brickworks were already employing 10,000 workers; this made this company the largest brick factory in the world. It was during this time that the first attempts were made with presses, which increased the annual output to 225 million bricks by the turn of the century. This means that brick production has long since developed from manual to industrial production.