How to make agarita wine

Winemaking

Wine is made from grapes. The essential steps of winemaking after the grape harvest are pressing, fermentation, aging, fining and bottling. The crucial process in winemaking is fermentation, during which yeast converts the sugar from the grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The fundamental difference in the production of white and red wine is that with white wine fermentation takes place after pressing (must fermentation) and with red wine before pressing (must fermentation).

The ripe grapes are harvested in the vineyard (harvest) and then first lightly squeezed. This is how the mash is made: the mixture of juice, pulp, peel and seeds. The color of the grapes sit in the skins - the pulp is light-colored even with red grapes - and as a result of the maceration, the juice of the grapes begins to dissolve the color from the skin.

Around White wine (from white grapes) or Rose wine (from red grapes), the mash is then pressed after a short standing time (a few hours). This creates the must (the pressed juice of the grapes) and the pomace (the solid residues such as peel, seeds, stems). To produce white wine from red grapes, the grapes are pressed immediately and without any maceration (so that no coloring matter is released from the skins). The must is then fermented. The yeast required for this is either added (pure yeast) or natural yeasts are used; then fermentation starts automatically. Fermentation not only creates the alcohol, it is also responsible for a large part of the wine's aromas.

Around red wine (made from red grapes) or Orange Wine (from white grapes), the entire mash is fermented. This not only detaches the color from the grape skins, but also tannins that are in the skins and seeds. That is why red and orange wines have tannins that taste slightly bitter and can have an astringent effect in the mouth. The fermentation takes place either with pure yeast or with natural yeast, and only then is it pressed. The resulting young wine is separated from the marc.

After fermentation (and the subsequent pressing for red wine and orange wine), the young wine is first filtered to remove the yeast residues from fermentation. This is followed by the expansion: The young wine is stored for a certain period of time (weeks, months, years) in stainless steel tanks or in wooden casks (large wooden casks, barriques). During this time, the aroma and, depending on the maturation time, also change the texture.

At the end of the aging period, the wine is clarified and fined to stabilize it before it is then bottled.

These general winemaking steps can be broken down into numerous small intermediate steps. These are explained in detail in the following articles, broken down by type of wine:

How is white wine made?
How is red wine made?
How is rosé wine made?
How is Orange Wine made?

Another note: It is not possible within the scope of this description to give something like instructions for making wine. Here only individual steps can be described more or less generally. In order to learn how to make wine, there are specific training courses (winemaker, wine technologist) and courses of study (viticulture and oenology) as well as - regardless of this - textbooks and the opportunity to do an internship in a winery.