How to write pbuh in Arabic

Arabic: writing and pronunciation: writing exercises


Introduction [edit]

A font based on the font used in most printed texts today is used here, which enables you to read all newspapers, books and other printed matter and also to put your own thoughts on paper.

Arabic is written on a base line (at least for a start). Although there is no upper or lower case, the letters are different sizes. As with the Latin script, there are no two letter heights, but each letter has its own characteristics. With a little practice, the right proportions will quickly become second nature. There are several basic letter forms that can be modified by adding dots above or below. On the one hand, this means that you don't have to learn so many new forms to write. On the other hand, it is also easy to mix up the individual letters at first. The only thing that helps here is a lot of practice.

You can write with a fountain pen, fiber-tip pen or pencil. Ballpoint pens are less suitable in the beginning because they are difficult to set the diacritical points with. The right hand is used to write (left-handers: left hand). Holding a pen corresponds to our habits.

Now to practice:

أ [edit]

The alif is an extremely diverse letter. It can stand on its own or be the carrier of the Hamza. This can either be below or above the Alif. The Alif consists of a line, usually inclined slightly to the left, from top to bottom over the entire writing height to the baseline.

It is important that the Alif is never connected to the left. The next letter is always added anew.

The isolated Alif is written from top to bottom, while the connected Alif (to the right) is written from bottom to top.

ﻥ, ﺙ, ﺕ, ﺏ and ﻱ [edit]

Although ﻥ and ﻱ follow later in the alphabet, they are also described here, as these five letters all have the same basic form. In the word or at the beginning of the word, they only consist of a small tick that goes up to a quarter of the writing height above the base line and is inclined slightly to the left. Then the respective points are placed in the middle above or below the tick.

ﺕ, ﺏ and ﺙ have the same end and individual shape consisting of a harmoniously curved "bathtub" on the base line. The dots are not placed above or below the tick, as in the case of the middle form, but in the middle above or below the "bathtub".

The ﻥ in its final and individual position is drawn under the base line and is not quite as wide as the "bathtub". The ends of the arc are each just above the base line. The point is set lower than for ﺕ and ﺙ, almost between the two ends of the arc.

The ﻱ in the end position consists of an elegant scroll. First you go up in a small arc and then you draw a relatively large arc under the line and again over it. The letter is about as wide as the "bathtub".

ﺡ, ﺝ and ﺥ [edit]

Writing exercise Djim - Cha

Here you start both in the initial and in the middle position (where you have to start again) a little to the left above the base line, draw a double curved arc to the right to the base line and then go to the left on the base line.

You also start in an isolated position, but then don't stay on the line, but draw an elegant, large arc under the line.

You do not have to start again for the end position, but move to the left on the base line, then back to the right at an angle, from where you start to the large end curve.

Finally, if necessary, the point is placed above the letter for the ﺥ or in the arc at the ﺝ.

ﺩ and ﺫ [edit]

Writing exercise Dal and Dhal

The shape of د and ذ is similar to that of ب etc. in the initial and middle positions, but they are a little larger. The most important difference is that د and ذ are not connected further, that is, you start with د and ذ with a line to the top left, then drive back on this to just before the baseline, then you turn down, drive on the Along the baseline to the left and, when the letter is about as wide as it is high, makes a very small end curve upwards and then leaves a gap in front of the next letter. The spelling is the same at the beginning, in the middle and at the end. The last thing to do with Punkt is to place the point in continuation of the slash upwards, the point above the letter.

ﺭ and ﺯ [edit]

Just like د and, ﺭ and ذ are not connected further. The letter begins a little above the base line (in the middle and end position you move up a bit) and runs in a long, slightly curved line diagonally below the line. It takes a little practice before you can do this with verve. But don't worry, until the time comes, the letter can still be recognized. Finally, the point is placed over the ﺯ.

ﺱ and ﺵ [edit]

Writing exercise Sin and Schin

ﺱ and ﺵ again consist of small ticks such as ب etc. in the initial or middle position. This time they are a tiny bit smaller and a little closer together, whereby the distance from the second to the third can be slightly larger than that from the first to the second. In the final and single position, both letters are given a nice, large curve under the baseline. Lastly, the ﺵ receives its points; and always in the middle of the three ticks.

ﺹ and ﺽ [edit]

ﺹ and ﺽ are similar to ﺱ and ﺵ. However, they are not written with three small arcs but like a horizontal drop. The letter begins to the left of the current position up to a little below the line, is then drawn to the top right and in an arc down to the baseline. There you go left to the beginning of the letter. In the final and individual positions, the letters have the same final arc as ﺱ and ﺵ.

ﻁ and ﻅ [edit]

ﻁ and ﻅ consist of the same drop as ﺹ and ﺽ. But they are in all forms without a final arc. Above the drop there is a vertical line, which may or may not touch the drop, and which is drawn approximately to the level of the Alif. With the ﻅ, the point is also set to the right of the line.

ﻉ and ﻍ [edit]

Writing exercise ʿAin and Ghain

In the starting position ﻉ and ﻍ are written as a semicircle open to the right, which is about as high as the tear of the. In an isolated position, a large arc is added under the line to this semicircle, as it is also written in the ﺡ. In the middle position they are written as a triangle set on its tip and in the end position the same curve is added to this triangle downwards as in the isolated position. Finally, the point is placed over the ﻍ.

ﻑ and ﻕ [edit]

ﻑ and ﻕ consist of a circle the size of the semicircle at ﻉ, whereby the ﻕ can be a tiny bit larger than the ﻑ. The points are set over the circle in all shapes. The two letters differ from each other (apart from the number of points) in their end or isolated position. The ﻑ gets a bathtub as well as ﺏ. The ﻕ, on the other hand, has an arc under the line like the ﺱ, but a little wider.

ﻙ [edit]

The ﻙ is a bit out of line with its angular shapes. In the initial and middle position you start either at the top right at the height of the Alif, draw a line to the left below over half the distance to the base line, turn around there and then go to the bottom right to the base line on which you continue to the left to the next letter or you start in the middle, draw the line to the bottom right and along the baseline, before starting again at the beginning and adding the line to the top right. In the isolated and end position, the ﻙ is quite large. It consists of a vertical line from the complete writing height to the baseline, followed by a line along the baseline. The letter is not quite as wide as it is tall. It ends with a small tick upwards, as with the ﺏ. Finally, put a small ء in the letter.

ﻝ [edit]

The ﻝ actually looks like a أ. The important difference, which you have to remember well, otherwise confusion will occur, is that the ﻝ is connected to the back and the أ is not. In the initial and middle positions, after you have written the vertical line, you go to the next letter on the base line. Since the letter in the isolated and end position cannot of course be connected to the back, the difference to the أ is that the ﻝ, like many other letters, has a closing curve. This is roughly the size of the ﻥ and is drawn clearly over the base line at the end.

ﻡ [edit]

The ﻡ consists of a circle like the ﻑ. In the beginning and middle position you can write it just like the ﻑ or, because it could then be so easily confused with this, you can write it counter-clockwise. To do this, start at the top of the circle (in the middle position, pull the paint up from the base line over the future circle), paint the circle and then go back over the circle to the base line. In the isolated and final position, one now walks a little bit along the base line before making the long downward stroke, roughly the length of the alif.

ﻩ [edit]

The ﻩ has many different forms. In the isolated position it is simply a circle that approximates the triangle shape a little bit above the base line. In the initial position it is a triangle with rounded corners that is slightly larger than the drop from the ﺹ. You start a little to the left on the base line, draw a line to the top right, then an equally long line to the bottom right to the base line and then along the base line to the starting point. There you make a little curl in the corner of the triangle as with the ﻑ, only a little smaller. With that the letter is ready. In the middle position it becomes diverse. Either the ﻩ looks like a v under the base line, or you add a small ﻑ ring above the line after the v, or you leave out the v completely and start with a not so small and somewhat elongated one Circle counterclockwise and under the line and then connect the little circle over the line again. Which shape you choose is a matter of taste. In the end position, draw a vertical line up to about 2/3 أ height and then add an oblique line to the bottom left to a piece in front of the base line and a horizontal line leading to the vertical line. The whole thing can be imagined as a waving flag.

ﻭ [edit]

The ﻭ again consists of a loop like the ﻑ and a final arc like the ﺭ is attached to it. The ﻭ, like this one, is one of the letters that cannot be joined at the back.

So, with that you can do the whole alphabet. However, to complete the Arabic script, a few characters are still missing:

The vowel marks [edit]

ة [edit]

ى [edit]

And what's next? [Edit]

Since you can now read and write the Arabic script, the differences between this script, which is mostly used in printing, and the handwritten script should now be mentioned.

Just as we learned the Ä-dots as individual dots in first grade and are now pulling them together, so do the Arabs. In cursive writing, two points are replaced by a horizontal line; Three dots are replaced by a tick (like the three dots are connected). That makes writing a lot easier. The ﺱ and ﺵ are not written with the three small arcs but as a long line, and as a very long one, because it must be clearly visible that this is a letter and not just the connection between two letters.

The cursive font is also distinguished from the printed font in that far more ligatures, i.e. connections between two letters that are easier to write, are used. The only ligature that is required for the print is the Lam-Alif لا. The ligatures make writing much more fluid.

Web link [edit]