How to find the charge on a molecule

How to determine the polarity of a molecule

Science 2021

Molecular polarity occurs when atoms with different electronegativity rates are combined in a way that leads to an asymmetrical distribution of electrical charge f & # 2

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Molecular polarity occurs when atoms with different electronegativity rates are combined in a way that results in an unsymmetrical distribution of electrical charge. Since all atoms have some degree of electronegativity, all molecules should be somewhat dipole. However, if a molecule has a symmetrical structure, the charges cancel each other, resulting in a non-polar molecule. The same thing happens when all the atoms in a molecule have the same electronegativity.

    Find the electronegativity of each atom using a periodic table of the elements. If all atoms have the same electronegativity, the molecule is by default non-polar. Considering the CH4 molecule, carbon (C) has an electronegativity of 2.5 and hydrogen (H) has an electronegativity of 2.1. Considering the molecule NH3, nitrogen (N) has an electronegativity of 3.0. However, since the molecule NCl3, nitrogen and chlorine have the same electronegativity of 3.0, the molecule is non-polar.

    Draw the molecule using the Lewis dot diagram method. Count the number of valence electrons each atom contains. Arrange the atoms so that the atom with the greatest electronegativity is in the center. Connect the atoms with single electron bonds and remove those electrons from the valence count. Position electron pairs around the outer atoms until you get an octet and then remove those electrons from the count. Place any remaining electrons around the atom in the center.

    Determine the polarity of the molecules by examining their shape for symmetry. In this example, the CH4 molecule has a tetrahedral shape that is symmetrical. So it is non-polar. The NCl3 molecule, on the other hand, has a pyramid shape and is therefore polar. In general, molecules with linear, trigonal, and tetrahedral shapes are non-polar, while atoms with pyramidal and V-shaped shapes are polar.

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