How does the nipah fruit spread after animals

Vegetable and animal immigrants

Indian balsam

A single plant produces around 4,000 seeds, which it hurls meters away with the slightest touch. Indian balsam (also called glandular balsam) has its original home in the western Himalayas, between 1,800 and 3,000 meters above sea level.

In 1839 the pink-red flowering plant was introduced to England, from where it was cultivated in European gardens. It has been established in Germany since around 1920 and populates banks and alluvial forests en masse.

Indian balsam is considered to be strong competition for native plant species. This is due to its rapid spread and its high nectar content, which attracts insects. They pollinate the plants and thus ensure their spread.

The control of the Indian balsam must be directed above all against the formation of new seeds. Pushing back is done by full mowing. The right time is between the beginning of flowering and the onset of fruit formation, roughly between mid and late June.

The cuttings should be removed in order to prevent the so-called adventitious root formation. As with other problem plants, control along rivers should always start at the upper reaches.

Japanese knotweed

The Japanese knotweed comes from East Asia and was originally introduced to Central Europe as an ornamental and fodder plant in the 19th century. The great competitive strength of this plant is that it grows and spreads quickly. Without further ado, it puts other plant species in the shade and robs them of their space in the ground to put down roots.

The Japanese knotweed is fought mainly through regular mowing and grazing. This weakens the stocks. Several years of control measures are necessary. Digging it up or tearing it up often weakens the rhizomes. A cut carried out several times leads to at least a stagnation of the spread.

Canadian goldenrod

The Canadian goldenrod, native to North America, was introduced to Europe as an ornamental plant in the 17th century. Because of the lack of predators in Europe, it grew wild and spread explosively in vineyards, gardens and gravel pits, on road embankments, forest edges and floodplains.

In Germany today it is widespread almost everywhere except for the highlands of the low mountain ranges. Her sister, the late goldenrod, is just as successful. The two species are suspected of displacing native plants.

Because of the good regenerative capacity of the plant, control measures must be carried out over several years. It should be mowed twice a year if possible (May and August, before flowering). A combination with grazing by sheep makes sense, as is tillage in dry, hot weather so that as many rhizomes as possible wither.

Canadian waterweed

Plant parts of the Canadian waterweed were released into nearby waters from the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1859. After that, the aquatic plant, which is mainly known to aquarists, spread rapidly through canals and rivers. A sister species is also widespread.

The ecological consequences of the waterweed species have not yet been fully clarified. What is certain, however, is that newts fold in the leaves of the waterweed in order to lay their eggs in them. Water spiders also use the Canadian "underwater forest" as a home.

Pharaoh ant

The pharaoh ant is native to Asia and probably comes from the East Indies. It was introduced to Europe through trade and traffic in the 19th century and is now widespread worldwide.

In Central Europe, the pharaoh ant is tied to warm rooms; it would not survive the winter outdoors. It can be found above all in buildings that are constantly heated, for example in hospitals and bakeries.

At around two millimeters in size, the amber-colored ant is one of the smallest ant species. It is omnivorous and prefers sugary and protein-rich substances.

This preference has probably also lured them into the housings of computers: a sweet protective jelly that surrounds some power cables provides food and it is comfortably warm between the circuit boards that are running at full speed. The result is system crashes and cable fires.

Pharaoh ants staying in hospitals are particularly dangerous. Attracted by blood and pus, the small animals crawl under wound dressings or nestle in medical equipment. Aside from the extremely painful stings, they can also transmit disease.

Fighting ants with insecticides is relatively pointless, as the queens quickly produce offspring in the protected nest. Therefore, they are fought with poisonous bait and so-called "molt inhibitors".

The workers carry the toxins into the nest, where they are fed to the queen and brood. Death then occurs either after multiple ingestion of food or during molting to the next larval stage.

Chinese mitten crab

As the name suggests, the Chinese woolly crab originally comes from Asia. At the beginning of the 20th century, it began to spread in Germany as well. It is believed that cargo ships brought the cancer. Above all, the rivers that flow into the North Sea, i.e. the Elbe, Weser, Ems and Rhine and their tributaries, are populated by it.

Since the woolly crab has no natural enemies in Germany, it spreads unchecked. It is now believed that there are billions of crabs in our waters.

As the water quality is constantly improving, the Chinese woolly crab is also feeling increasingly comfortable. It eats the prey from the local fish and threatens to displace them in the long term.

Experts consider it impossible to get rid of the crab. Instead, they advise further promoting the ecological balance in German waters in order to strengthen natural fish stocks.