Cadet madrasah in Bangladesh What do pumpkins do

Education in Bangladesh - Education in Bangladesh

Overview of education in Bangladesh

Education in Bangladesh is overseen by the country's Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education is responsible for implementing policies for primary education and state-funded schools at the local level. In Bangladesh, all citizens must complete twelve years of compulsory education, consisting of eight years in elementary school and four years in high school. Primary and secondary education is funded by the state and is free in public schools.

Bangladesh fully complies with the United Nations Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) goals, as well as other education-related international declarations. Article 17 of the Constitution of Bangladesh provides that all children receive free and compulsory education.

Education System

A diagram of the Bangladeshi education system

The main education system is divided into three levels:

  • Primary level (grades 1-8)
  • Secondary school (9-12): There is no middle school system in Bangladesh.
  • Tertiary level

At all school levels, students can choose to receive their education in English or Bangla. Private schools typically use English-language learning media, while state-sponsored schools use Bangla.

Cadets in a classroom

Cadet colleges are important in the education system of Bangladesh. A cadet college is a college and board college administered by the Bangladeshi military. Discipline is compulsory at all cadet colleges. The Faujdarhat Cadet College is the first Cadet College in Bangladesh, established in 1958 on an area of ​​0.75 km 2 was founded in Faujdarhat in the Chittagong district. There are currently 12 cadet colleges in Bangladesh, three of which are for girls.

As of September 2019, higher education in Bangladesh will take place at 44 state, 101 private and 3 international universities. Students can pursue their studies in auditing, engineering, technology, agriculture and medicine at various universities and colleges.

Table: Number of primary schools, teachers and students, 2018

School type number of schools Total teacher Total students
total Female % the women total girl % of girls
Government. primary school 38033 222652 144434 64.9 10188129 5252022 51.6
New nationalized PS 25008 96460 47396 49.1 4483785 2278239 50.8
General government school 63041 319112 191830 60.11 14671914 7530261 51.32
Regd. NGPS 193 771 464 60.2 38282 19611 51.2
Not regd. NGPS 1744 6649 4716 70.9 256268 127112 49.6
School for autistic people 33 282 246 89.2 10652 5250 49.3
Ebtadaee Madrasah 2673 11673 2300 19.7 372277 181341 48.7
kindergarten 16170 93799 54813 58.4 1988365 914016 46.0
NGO school 2512 5454 3764 69,0 210170 107898 51.3
Community school 120 405 322 79,5 16747 8679 51.8
Bound to the High Madrasah 5526 19764 2812 14.2 871047 427341 49.1
Basic sections of high school 1511 8301 4450 53.6 572751 295659 51.6
BRAC 7779 7798 7277 93.3 324438 185873 57.3
ROSC school 3818 3591 2867 79,8 106884 53751 50.3
Sishu Kollyan Elementary School 133 410 277 67.6 15665 8284 52.9
Other schools 3262 4875 2967 60.9 97519 48808 50.0
Total: 108515 482884 279105 57.8 19552979 9913884 50.7
Non-English middle school 108515
English middle school 196

Primary education

Overall responsibility for the management of primary education rests with the Ministry of Basic and Mass Education (MOPME), which was established as a ministry in 1992. While MOPME is involved in the formulation of guidelines, responsibility for implementation rests with the Directorate for Primary Education (MOPME). DPE) under the direction of a general director. The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and its subsidiary offices in the district and Upazila are solely responsible for the administration and supervision of primary education. Their duties include hiring, seconding and transferring teachers and other staff. Organization of further training for teachers; Distribution of free textbooks; and supervision of schools. The responsibility for the construction, repair and delivery of school furniture lies with the DPE, which is carried out by the LGED (Local Government Engineering Department). The National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) is responsible for developing the curriculum and creating textbooks. While the Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for formulating the policy, the Directorate for Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) of the Ministry of Education is responsible for its implementation in secondary and higher education. The NCTB is responsible for developing the curriculum and publishing standard textbooks.

The Directorate for Primary Education (DPE) is responsible for conducting the two public exams:

Secondary education

Secondary education is controlled by the nine general education bodies:

The boards are headquartered in Barishal, Cumilla Chattogram, Dhaka, Dinajpur Jessore, Mymensingh, Rajshahi and Sylhet.

Eight regional secondary education bodies (BISE) are responsible for running the two public exams:

At the school level, in the case of non-governmental secondary schools, school management boards (SMC) and at the intermediate level, in the case of non-governmental colleges, boards of directors (UK) formed according to government guidelines are responsible for mobilizing resources, approving budgets, controlling expenses and appointing and disciplining staff. While teachers from non-state secondary schools are recruited by affected SMCs in compliance with the relevant state regulations, teachers from state secondary schools are recruited centrally by the DSHE through an admission test.

There is no SMC in state secondary schools. The school principal is solely responsible for running the school and is supervised by the deputy director of the respective zone. However, there are parent-teacher associations (PTAs) in place to ensure a better teaching and learning environment.

Tertiary education

In the tertiary level, universities are regulated by the University Grants Commission. The higher education colleges are part of the National University. Each of the medical colleges is affiliated with a public university. Universities in Bangladesh are autonomous bodies administered by legal bodies such as the Syndicate, Senate, Academic Council, etc., according to the provisions of their respective legal acts.

Technical and vocational education

The technical and vocational education system offers courses in various applied and practical areas of science, technology and engineering or focuses on a specific subject. The course duration ranges from one month to four years. The Technical Education Board controls the technical and vocational training in the secondary level as well as two years HSC BM / Vocational in the upper secondary level.

The Directorate for Technical Education (DTE) is responsible for the planning, development and implementation of technical and vocational education in the country. The curriculum is implemented by the BTEB. In the technical education system, after obtaining a diploma in engineering (four-year curriculum) at the institutes listed below, students can continue their educational careers by obtaining a bachelor's degree from engineering and technology universities. It usually takes another two and a half to three years to get a bachelor's degree, although some students may take more than three years to complete. You can then enroll for postgraduate studies. Students can also study CA (Chartered Accounting) after passing the HSC or Bachelor degree and meeting the eligibility criteria of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Bangladesh (ICAB).

Alternative education system

English middle schools

English Middle Schools are mainly private schools where all courses are taught in English, with the exception of one Bengali language subject at the normal level (O-Level). These schools in Bangladesh follow the General Certificate of Examination (GCE) curriculum, which prepares students for the Ordinary Level (O-Level) and Advanced Level (A-Level) exams. The General Education Certificate system is one of the most internationally recognized qualifications based in the UK. The exams for the ordinary and advanced level are English and correspond to the exams for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC). Most students take these exams at the registered schools in Bangladesh that follow the GCE curriculum. Those who do not attend a school that follows the GCE curriculum can also take their exams for the full and advanced level with the British Council. These tests are carried out under the supervision of the British Council in Bangladesh. The British Council's GCE exam takes place twice a year. There are currently two bodies working from Bangladesh for regular and advanced level exams: Edexcel and Cambridge University international exams. Bangladesh recently opened English version schools that translate textbooks into English. In recent years, national language policy has made teaching English in Bangladesh a top priority

Madrasah education

The Madrasah Education System focuses on religious education and provides all the basics of teaching in a religious setting. Religious Studies is taught in Arabic, and students in some areas also serve the local masjids. Students must also complete all general education system courses. Many privately licensed madrasas take in homeless children and provide them with food, shelter, and education, e.g. B. Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah in Sylhet. There are two systems in the Madrasah Education System:

One called the "Quomi" Madrasah system is privately owned and funded. It is operated according to the Deobandi system of Islamic education, which rejects the rational sciences.

The other, called the "Alia" medrasah system, is privately owned but subsidized by the government (the government spends 11.5% of its education budget on alia madrasahs and pays 80% of the teachers 'and administrators' salaries ). Quomi Madrasahs account for 1.9% of total primary enrollment and 2.2% of secondary enrollment; Aliyah Madrasahs account for 8.4% of primary and 19% of secondary enrollments. The Alia system is similar to the general education system, except that Arabic is taught in addition to general education. The Madrasah Education Board deals with religious education in state-registered madrasahs in secondary education. After passing "Alim", a student can enroll for three more years to reach a "Fazil" level. Students can continue their education and acquire a university degree. After passing this successfully, they can enroll for a further two years in order to obtain a degree at the "Kamil" level.

The following table provides a statistical comparison of the "Quomi" and "Alia" Madrasah systems.

Profile of Madrassa Education in Bangladesh
Number of private (quomi) madrassas 13.902
Number of government sponsored (alia) madrassas 6,906
Number of teachers in Quomi madrassas 130.000
Number of teachers in Alia madrassas 100,732
Number of students in Quomi madrassas 1.462.500
Number of students in Alia madrassas 1,878,300
Total number of madrassas (Quomi + Alia) 13.406
Total number of teachers (Quomi + Alia) 230.732
Total number of students (Quomi + Alia) 3,340,800

Refugee education

By 2020, around a third of Rohingya refugee children had access to primary education, mainly through temporary centers run by international organizations. UNICEF operates around 1,600 learning centers across the country, in which around 145,000 children are taught. As of April 2020, UNICEF and the government of Bangladesh should enroll 10,000 Rohingya children in schools teaching them the Myanmar curriculum.

Rating System

In Bangladesh, grades of at least 33% (or one third) are considered a passed grade.

Since the education system in Bangladesh is fully controlled by the government up to upper secondary (or grade 12), the grading system is more or less the same up to that point. For each subject, the grades are converted into “grade points (GP)” and added up and divided by the total number of subjects. They are therefore referred to as the “grade point average (GPA)”. The highest achievable GPA is 5.0. There is also a "Letter Grade (LG)" which indicates a range of GPA for the overall result or an individual GPA for a single subject. The rating system is shown below.

Class interval Note point Letter note
100-80 5 A +
79-70 4 A
69 - 60 3.5 A-
59 - 50 3 B.
49 -40 2 C.
39 - 33 1 D.
32 - 0 0 F.

However, a fourth subject or an optional subject system is introduced in upper secondary and upper secondary level. Although failing in the fourth subject is not counted as a failure for the whole, doing good can help gain additional grade points. The additional grade points received are simple (GP in the 4th subject) - 2. During the GPA count, the algorithm can simply be written as follows:

Here, TGP is the overall grade achieved in subjects other than the optional subjects. OGP is the additional GP acquired in the 4th subject. N is, of course, the total number of subjects without the elective.

Note that the GPA cannot exceed 5. Additional GPs gained from the optional slot are not counted if the slot's GP is less than or equal to 2.

Obviously, achieving a GPA of 5.0 or A + is considered a good result. However, because a student can achieve a grade well above the 80% required to obtain a GPA of 5.0, the actual grades in each subject are also included on the official grade sheets published by the Education Committee for PSC, SSC - and HSC exams are awarded. There is also an unofficial term called Golden A +, which means that A + is obtained in all subjects, as thanks to the fourth subject system, a student can also get a perfect GPA in all subjects without reaching more than 80%.

Not formal education

There are a significant number of non-NGO-run non-formal schools that mainly serve early school leavers in state and non-state elementary schools. However, very few NGOs provide education for the entire five-year primary school cycle. For this reason, after completing two to three years of non-formal primary education in NGO-run schools, students typically re-enter state / non-state primary schools in higher grades.

There are non-government schools (NGOs) and non-formal education centers (NFE), many of which are government funded. The largest NFE program is the renowned BRAC program. However, not all NFE graduates attend secondary school.

Schools run by non-governmental organizations are different from other private non-governmental schools. While private schools function like private companies, often run by commercial interests, NGO schools operate mainly in areas that are not served by either government or private schools, essentially to meet the educational needs of vulnerable groups in society. They usually take an informal approach to addressing the special needs of children from these vulnerable groups. But nowadays some NGO schools work in places where there are both private and state schools.

Likewise, there are no SMCs in schools run by NGOs. The leadership style differs depending on the different policies of the different NGOs. Some are managed centrally in a very bureaucratic framework, while others enjoy considerable autonomy.

Different NGOs have different guidelines for hiring teachers. Some prepare a group of potential teachers based on a rigorous test and recruit teachers from that group. Other NGOs tend to recruit teachers informally from locally available interested people.

Current problems

Girls studying at the Unique Child Learning Center in Mirpur-Dhaka

Current government projects to promote the education of children in Bangladesh include compulsory primary education for all, free schooling for girls up to 10th grade, scholarships for female students, a nationwide integrated education system and a literacy movement for education. Much of the country's national budget is dedicated to putting these programs into action, promoting education and making it more accessible. In recent years, these efforts have paid off, and the Bangladeshi education system is one step ahead of what it was just a few years ago. Now even national curriculum books from Grade 5 to Grade 12 are freely distributed among all students and schools.

The education system in Bangladesh faces several problems. In the past, education in Bangladesh was primarily a British-style upper class affair, with all courses being held in English and very little done for the common people. The Bangladesh Education Board has taken steps in the past to abandon such practices and looks forward to education to provide a better future for a poverty stricken nation. Since Bangladesh is an overpopulated country, there is a huge demand for converting its population into labor. Therefore, adequate education is needed and adequate government assistance in the education sector of Bangladesh is vital.

It is still not observed that universities and the existing system of academic curricula in Bangladesh promote industry-oriented critical thinking and primarily use memorization, which encourages passivity on a corporatized model, and that the country lacks outcome-based education (OBE) implemented) yet another blended system that includes classroom and laboratory instruction with industry-oriented hands-on knowledge for academic and postgraduate engineering degrees.

Education expenditure as a percentage of GDP

Public spending on education is on the verge of 2 percent of GDP, with a minimum of 0.94 percent in 1980 and a maximum of 2.2 percent in 2007.

Qualitative dimension

The education system lacks a solid system for developing and allocating human resources. This has demoralized the primary school sector staff, including teachers, and contributed to poor performance. Poverty is a major threat to primary education. The population in Bangladesh is very high. The number of places available in colleges is less than the number of students who want to enroll, and the number of places available in universities is also less than the number of students who have completed upper secondary education and want to attend a university. The cost of education is increasing day by day, and so many students cannot afford it.

One study found an absence rate of 15.5% for elementary school teachers.

Gender differences

In Bangladesh, gender discrimination in education occurs in rural households, but not in wealthy households. Bangladesh has achieved gender equality in primary and secondary education, with significant progress made in higher education. The success rates of boys are very different compared to girls in Bangladesh. Girls do much better and outperform boys in almost all areas of education. However, in the last few years some advances have been made in attempting to address this problem.

School attendance

Low performance in primary education is also a concern. School dropout and grade repetition rates are high. Poor school attendance and short contact times in school are factors that contribute to poor learning performance.

Religion and education

Madrasah education in Bangladesh is heavily influenced by religion.

Literacy level

Recently, the literacy rate in Bangladesh has improved as it stands at 74.7% as of 2020 due to the modernization of schools and education funds.

See also

References

further reading

External links