Abyssal Cry when Poe is damaged

Friedrich Gerstäcker
The South Sea Islands
Friedrich Gerstäcker

 << zurück weiter >> 

2. Honolulu and the Sandwich Islands.

Between the coral reefs, over which the foaming tide broke, and the whale fishers already lying in the harbor, our good boat, rowed by four sailors, shot down, and soon we were lying at the shipyard, made of rough white coral blocks, where a multicolored crowd was in the liveliest colors of dressed natives immediately attacked us, and my belongings lying in the boat above all as good booty after God knows how many different hotels and restaurants I wanted to tow away. Of course I chased them back on land and decided to look around for a place myself where I could "lay my head" (dear God, I am already starting to cite passages from the Bible myself near the many missionaries) I surrendered myself to the uncertain hands and the much more uncertain honesty of these "Christian natural people". Incidentally, I was astonished to find so much "culture" here, because in New York or Berlin the sworn and sworn porters couldn't have made it a hair worse. But I was to find the culture much further advanced, for just as the apparently sterile appearance of the island had surprised me on the approach, so now I was again amazed by the civilization that I found everywhere, which I had found everywhere. I came to Honolulu in the belief that I would find a still rather wild island in the South Seas, and that I would be able to roam undisturbed in the coconut forests with the wild natives, and instead found myself in the place where I suspect this lush tropical vegetation had nothing less than tropical bowling alleys, billiards and bar rooms, and so sober faces as I could only have wished for in any big city in Europe or America.

But no, the Christian influence of the missionaries had not robbed the natives of anything peculiar; They still had the yellow-brown skin, the black curly hair, the sparkling, lively eye, the quick, powerful movements and gestures, and the strangest groups met my happily wandering gaze on the beach, where a good number of them were crouching around the houses, some standing idle , partly held fruit and vegetables for sale, dragged boxes and packages, pulled handcarts, drove oxen, cleaned streets and, apparently, willingly submitted to every further blessing of civilization.

But I did not have long to make such considerations, because above all I had to look around for a stay for myself, for what purpose I did that from a German trading house there Hotel de France, a French inn, was recommended, and a few hours later I was completely at home there too. To transport my things up, Mr. Hackfeldt, a former ship's captain and now a very respected merchant in Honolulu, allowed me to take his goods cart and some Kanakas, as the natives there call themselves, and to inquire about the price beforehand had to pay them, I set out with them - but on the march there almost innocently caused a crowd.

I was carrying a bottle in my hand with Californian snakes, lizards, beetles, caterpillars, spiders and so on, so that they shouldn't be shaken too much on the wagon, and one of the "Kanakas" got the weather off. Curious as to how they all are, he quickly stepped closer to look at the strange things, others we passed also had to know what it was about, and before two minutes passed I had a crush of at least fifty people around me around, which was now growing like an avalanche. I had to put the bottle on the cart and between the rest of the luggage, and only be glad that the police officers (there are almost as many in Honolulu as in any German town) had already taken care of the matter.

But there was also a young white man who seemed to be very interested in the objects, at least in part. It was a young fellow of about fourteen or fifteen years of age who, it seemed, wanted to buy one of my Californian bows and quivers of arrows under any condition, and who now appeared indescribably astonished that there could be someone in the world to whom such a thing is not for sale, especially since I had two of them. At last he came up with the cause why he did not wish to have the objects alone, but to have them would have tobecause he belongs to society Art rider - was I on the sandwich islands? - who had just come over from San Francisco and gave her ideas here, and since he himself was just planning to introduce a North American savage the next evening, I would probably see that he couldn't do that well without a bow and arrows, and Let him have one of mine, regardless of the price. Incidentally, since I did not want to go into it even in the interests of art, he really had to ride his North American Indian without a bow and arrow.

So I stayed in the Hotel de France (The reader may of course not apply a European standard based on the title), and certainly very well, but also entirely according to California prices, by which this island, because of its important connection with San Francisco, is beginning to orient itself strongly. Board and lodging was 12 dollars a week, but the place was otherwise friendly and airy, and the landlord, a French, polite and courteous.

Honolulu itself is a small, friendly town, with avenues surrounded by a linden-like tulip tree (hibiscus tiliaceus), which grows wild inside, give something rural or even cozy. The houses are mostly low, but for the most part have gardens, here and there individual stately coconut palms tower up, and the palm-like bullocks and very pretty oil-nut trees that often occur (aleurites tribola, There Kui Kui or Kukui called) give the whole place that tropical touch, which of course only makes it so much more interesting for the northerner. Some believe that the city is still being disfigured in many places by the thatched huts of the natives, but it was precisely those that I would have been reluctant to miss in the whole, because these buildings, made entirely of straw or reed, with their plaited thickets and Roofs smooth and firm to the ground, over which the feathery bullocks and bananas stretched their broad leaves, and in front of which lay the neatly woven mats, formed the ancient trunk of the buildings of Honolulu, and all the others from China and the United States Introduced wooden houses only stood like tolerated strangers between the natives who felt at home there.

Here and there you also come across stone houses, such as B. the government building, with its golden crown over the arched gate, and many other private homes and churches; but on average most of them, especially in the commercial part of the city, are made of wood, and the straw huts form more of the suburbs of Honolulu.

The two most solid buildings - not excluding the fort itself - are in any case the customs house and some churches, all made of coral blocks.

Here, above all, I have to talk to the reader about the expression Corals who could only too easily get a far too romantic idea of ​​the building material, which would otherwise look raw enough; at least I know how I used to feel about such descriptions. The type of coral found here is the white one, and, when set in young saplings, is delicate and fine enough, with its alabaster-like arms and branches; over time, however, these spaces between the branches fill up completely, and then form a dirty white, very porous and light, but solid stone mass that contains a particularly large amount of lime, and from which lime is burned, while it is, like that Well it wants to go, hewn stones or blocks used to make shipyards, walls and houses. In appearance this coral mass is similar to the stalactite, only that it is not so firm and hard.

Close to the shipyard and only a short distance from the fort, there is a spacious, airy market house, also listed by Stein; The natives, however, are so used to their old thatched-roofed places, partly opposite this, partly in other parts of the city, that a very definite law is probably first required to bring them into places where they have, if not a more comfortable, but certainly more clean place . The previous marketplaces are not distinguished from other such places in southern cities, even the fish market is not particularly rich, and these islands are so poor in fruit that good oranges are even shipped here from Tahiti and sold for profit. But even the oranges that grow here, a sour, very poor quality, are very expensive, each individual piece cost 2½ Ngr. In German money, coconuts 10 Ngr., And even for bananas one paid four times what one paid in Rio de Janeiro had to pay for it.

It was in the same relationship with the potatoes, which the Californian market and the ever-increasing demand for it had driven up in a truly unnatural way; In general, all the products of life, especially in the last year, had risen in a particularly very unpleasant way for the whale catchers arriving there, and later it took almost a full year before they, due to the ever increasing imports both to San Francisco, but mainly by the Agriculture and horticulture rose rapidly there, fell just as quickly, but still richly rewarded the work related to the culture of the land.

Even if the market is not itself, the individual vendors walking around the city have many peculiarities, who, in the manner of the Chinese, hang everything they carry with them for sale on a stick about four feet long and almost to the ground Carrying calebasses, of which those again who made the porridge made from the taro roots or Poë are covered with just such calebas falls. You can stroll comfortably through the streets with it, or crouch patiently in the corners until a buyer is found.

These traders, who carry fruit, fish, chickens, turkeys, pigs, eggs etc. around the city, are only men, but women also hawk at the markets. The Hawaier, or Kanaka, as he is commonly called, can get by with very little work; Often one sees some of them walking around town for hours or even days with a dozen eggs or two chickens, and with marvelous patience again and again selling their wares for the same price - they have set the price for themselves once, and they do not leave and should they miss enough time to earn three times as much until they have received it. The Kanaka seems to have only a very imperfect conception of the value of time, for people who have been resident there for a long time have assured me that one can buy from him, and if he lives in the most distant part of the island, the products he is brings up nothing cheaper in his own place than he is able to sell them to the Honolulu market - he doesn't count the days he needs to get them there, sell them, and return again.

As far as the tribe itself is concerned, a perfect standard can no longer be applied to Honolulu. The people here have become morally and physically degenerate, and Christianity and whale catchers have worked their way into their hands (however different these two terms may be) to exterminate the poor people of the earth as much as possible, or whatever what remained was to destroy the mind as well as the body. It sounds harsh and exaggerated, and American clergymen would put their hands over their heads and eyes to heaven if they read it - but unfortunately it is a fact that is not alone feels and feels when one lives among the people themselves, but which can even be calculated down to the smallest, most insignificant soul using statistical tables.

As for the natives of the island, especially the Oahus, they are what is so called "civilized". Instead of the otherwise only narrow pubic belt, the men wear shirts and sometimes trousers, and the women go dressed in brightly colored cotton or silk. Many of them are also able to write and read, thanks to the really active - often active - efforts of the missionaries, and I call them too active because they even began to pass laws in several places (everything through the chiefs, of course, later except for Denying blood that they themselves had anything to do with it) that young people who wanted to marry each other, could not be married to each otherwhen they couldn't write and read. The moral influence exercised by such a law can be imagined, especially if one considers the current female population of the islands.

The books that they have have been translated and given to them by the missionaries and, with the exception of a few textbooks, only exist in religious - strictly Orthodox scriptures; the Bible - a book about 12-13 inches thick - takes the first place among them, for I have no doubt that the Kanakas will have as much respect for the thickest women as for the thickest books, and how it must have been a huge job for the missionaries to translate this book into the Kanaka language (and not only the simple translation was necessary, but a veritable mass of words, indeed even wordsLute first had to be formally invented for their language and made comprehensible to them), just as it is now certainly a much greater job for the Kanakas to understand and - to believe what is written, which for them is about a completely alien world. We can only take the example from ourselves, Christians, of whom hardly half are really believes, and not a quarter of this half again understandwhat it believes, while the clergy of the various sects are quarreling themselves over the meanings of words. What would the consequences have to be if the Kanaka devoted himself to the study of these teachings with all his spiritual powers? Fortunately, he is far from taking the books or the teachings very seriously or even thinking about them very much, with the exception of individuals, of course. He no longer worships idols, at least publicly, pays and does for his priests and teachers what they ask of him, has been baptized and now regards himself as a perfectly good and "ready" Christian who, when he dies, has no further Preface goes into heaven and eternal bliss.

Only in his last hour, when he usually approached his dissolution with joyful confidence, or at least with indifference, does what he heard about the eternal punishments of Christians grasp - he mostly only sees that angry God of the new doctrine, for whom, as he knows very well, he has just done nothing special to make him a friend, and fear and horror of the never-ending criminal judgment seizes him until compassionate death finally frees him from himself and relieves him of the doubts that held his anxious soul captive in night and horror.

The Hearts Incidentally, the native may have completely improved the zeal of the missionaries on these islands, that is possible; at least I can't say the opposite externally but he had little influence on the natives, and neither improved nor ennobled them. The Indians steal not because they are forbidden to do so under the strictest and most ruthlessly executed punishments, but they cheat where they can, and women? - At sunset the streets in Honolulu were teeming with brightly dressed women and girls, and people who were resident there and knew life assured me that among all these there was not one who was not for sale. So much for the morality of these new Christians.

However, the reader will also want to hear more about the costumes and appearance of the natives, because despite Hawaiian ministers and consuls, they are definitely the most interesting personalities on the whole islands, and in any case the fair sex deserves the first mention here again. The description of the female costume of these islands does not cause me any difficulties, because it is simple enough, and consists only of a shirt and outer garment, which is made in the style of our German dust shirts, just close to the neck and down to the ankles falls into wide folds. The fabric and the color of this outer garment are very different: it consists partly of the simplest, most modest calico, partly of precious, heavy silk, but always with the very same uniform cut. Some still wear silk shawls or handkerchiefs over them, but only a very few, and perhaps only the richer ones, while no native girl lacks any hair adornment. This is still a remnant of the old pagan times, and fortunate that the missionaries never found out that they wore these garlands and wreaths in honor of their favorite goddess "nature", otherwise they would also have been exterminated with all the rest of the image and idolatry.

These hair ornaments are general, and the predominant colors are yellow and red and green. Many are wearing flowers and wreaths. The actual original jewelry of the islanders, however, consists of a narrow band of plaited yellow and red feathers, which are very highly valued among them because they are difficult to get because of their rarity. Since it was perhaps too expensive for everyone to get these feather ornaments, but everyone had to have jewelry, the feathers were often replaced by round ties of sheared wool in these colors, and these can now be obtained by everyone.

By the way, despite the most beautiful clothes and hair trim, most, almost all of them, go barefoot, which, however, does not really go together for European eyes.

Their figures - with the exception of a few primordial sandwichers, who have the right aristocratic weight - are generally slender, and their gait is easy; the faces also have something friendly and good-natured about them, and the brightly colored decorations in their black hair and the dark eyes under their yellow-brown foreheads do not look bad at all.

Much different and mixed is the suit of the men, some of whom are found completely in European costume, some still half in their old costume, clad only in the narrow "malo" or loincloth and an indescribably short shirt, or not actually clad . Even these latter, however, are Christians and no longer believe in the fire goddess Pele, who formerly existed in the boiling crater Owaihis, but now in the one who really lives "in the bottomless abyss" and in the "lake that burns with fire and brimstone" deviland that must be very reassuring for their otherwise hopelessly lost souls.

In the beginning it struck me as miraculous that I only saw working men and idle women in the streets of the city as in the surrounding area. The women all seem to lead lives entirely devoted to their pleasure, while I only saw among the men individual chiefs or "employees" who were also considered high-born enough to run their thumbs around one another. I recently read an article, starting in America, about the missionaries there, which accuses them of the situation just described, and they accuse men of using them for pack animals and pulling animals while they kept formal harems from the female population ; I would like to contradict that here.

However, I am strangely trying to protect myself from the missionaries, with whose work and doings I simply do not agree, but as much as I have seen and heard out in the world about this class of people so far, you can tell them what else also, but do not accuse any conspicuous and particularly public offenses against morality. Excellent on the Sandwich Islands, where they took over power and the supreme command with much more ambitious striving, and ruled only through the king, who was completely in their hands, but through this, as through many others, really good measures, had drawn the jealousy and hatred of particularly rude crews, they would certainly - if for no other reason - have cautiously avoided giving the world such public scandal and just matter for accusation. Preferably on the Sandwich Islands, however, they seem very strict and withdrawn in their own families, and nowhere to have offended them in this way, and even their most ardent accusers there were never able to bring such a thing against them.

Whether in reality they kept themselves so free from any debauchery is another question, and it would probably be difficult to decide, but in this case too it does not belong to the public before the judge's seat.

However, by the way, they use the half-naked natives to pull - even to pull their own families, as I've seen with my own eyes, and in the past they should be perfect naked Savages, clad only in their Malo, a three-finger-wide strip of stuff - who pulled the little handcarts with the pious teachers through the streets of the city in a pretty paradise-like manner. The public, however, has spoken out quite roughly against it, and the pullers are now at least wearing a shirt, but are still, according to our terms, at least provided with it themselves, in the deepest or very deep negligee.

The Kanakas are lazy workers, and their whole climate, the hot stretch of the sky under which they live, may completely excuse them in it. Nature, which offered them everything they needed for their livelihood in abundance, without their having to do anything more than reach out to them, did not want to make them slaves to their stomachs or backs. The whites, however, thought differently about it and proved to the islanders with considerable success that their wives no longer had to make the tapas, which they usually used for dresses or aprons and worked themselves, since the missionaries themselves initially used calico for them Purpose sold, and that it would be a sin to disfigure their skin by tattooing, which time they could use far more useful and godly to build churches, to build houses for the missionaries and to work for their chiefs, these suddenly newly learned and quickly understood needs more comfortable or elegant apartments and clothes etc. easier to help satisfy.

The Kanaka works, but in fact only when he has to, and then always only that which cannot be postponed for the moment. It is therefore almost impossible to cultivate land with them to build products that should provide an article of commerce. He doesn't grumble in the least about his little one taro A pond in which the taro or palo root, which is indispensable for his livelihood, is grown - but with that he also knows that he has enough - and more - for other people, in the end even potatoes and sugar cane? - nothing else was missing from him. Yes if he got tothen it's a different matter if the new God has imposed some kind of punishment on him by the strange white men, or if he necessarily needs a house - or his priests need one - or wants his chief to cultivate land where he cannot help but obey, then of course it is a different matter , but convince himself that he also has other needs for himself than planting a field with taro and a shirt on, if he is not allowed to come into town without the shirt, if not a sheer impossibility , but associated with unspeakable difficulty.

For this reason, the Europeans who began to cultivate there mostly found themselves compelled to do their work themselves; at least they could not count on steadfast help from the natives, and this lack of strength was so palpable, in spite of the still quite numerous population Just then, when the islands could not produce as much potatoes, vegetables and fruits as California wanted to export, the "agricultural society" there, an association of the wealthiest planters in Oahu, had felt compelled to send a ship to China To get workers from there.

Incidentally, the traffic on the Sandwich Islands is now probably the most important of all the South Sea groups, and these islands owe this not only to their fertility, but even more to their favorable location. Not only has the proximity of California exerted an almost magical influence on the growing prosperity and the value of the property, but the islands are also in the course of all whale fishers, some of which come from the Japan Sea - a very good hunting ground - and others to the arctic Ocean - the most excellent place for catching polar wallfish, discovered only two years ago - and come here to get refreshments and other commissions.

Oahu, the island on which the capital Honolulu is located, produces the fewest products, most of them come from Hawaii and Maui, and the ships destined for California therefore usually call at these islands, load there and leave from there over to Francisco. The main export consists of potatoes and some coconuts, bananas and oranges.

There is only one thing that keeps some ships from calling at the Sandwich Islands when they do not have to, namely the desertion of the sailors, who not only seek to escape from here to California, but also wish to stay on the islands themselves, where good daily wages , especially for craftsmen, their waiting. The laws protect the captains immensely in this, in order to prevent the sailors from running away, but cannot completely prevent it. So z. B. People who hide or support runaway sailors pay a fine of 500 dollars. But the islands are in fact far too seductive, California is too close, and the captains very often cannot avoid calling at them if they really wanted to.

Incidentally, before I left the Sandwich Islands again, I was supposed to find out for myself how much even the government was interested in recapturing the sailors, insofar as it was first of all its own interest and then the missionaries themselves, because there are hardly two left different classes of people in the vast world of God who are generally as hostile to each other as missionaries and sailors or seamen in general. - Exceptions, as goes without saying, always accepted.

The sailor is, I would almost like to say, a born enemy of the missionary, and the missionary knows it - and mercy God, where two such heterogeneous elements were bestowed on the poor Indians at the same time, as this has often happened in the various groups of the South Seas . Then instantly two parties formed, and murder and bloodshed all too often resulted. The missionaries described the sailors to the natives as vicious, godless people, as a plague of society and as such cast out by it, and the sailors then usually avenged themselves by suspecting the priests of the ignorant natives of having secret and dangerous incantations to make them sick, or to take away their land and gods. The Tonga Islands provide a good example of this.

With the Duff, an English vehicle which has scattered a multitude of missionaries over the islands, and seems to have even been sent for this purpose, ten of them landed on Tongatabu (1797), where they found two whites, an Englishman and an Irishman. On the arrival of the ship they must have behaved in a friendly manner with these men, for they not only served them as interpreters, but one of them even warned the ship to be on the lookout for an attack by the savages, and gave them how to behave later revealed excellent advice on their establishment. But later disputes arose, first - as the venerable travel writer says - about an iron pot that one of the Europeans asked to borrow from them, then about a piglet that the latter is said to have stolen, and then the missionaries sat down, who spoke up had now perfected something, the natives knew that those whites to whom they gave protection were formerly very bad people in their own homeland (they later claimed that they had escaped from Sydney there) and are now hiding from the rest of the whites would have to hold. The Europeans, who might also be deportees, although this did not yet so completely include the "bad people" - told the chiefs that the missionaries were men sent by the King of England to bring the plague to the island (it it is more likely that they warned him that they would take possession of the island later) and it is for this reason that they so often locked themselves in and sang their incantations. - A traveler now says that the missionaries were all slain by the savages, but that is not correct; three were murdered after about ten years, but the rest moved to another island, and it seems that they persuaded the Indians to take the two whites to the returning ship Duff to deliver. One of them, Conelly, who had previously been her interpreter and advisor, they also caught, the other fled inside and was later slain.

But that's just a Example of thousands and is also extremely easy to explain. The missionaries, as soon as they begin to convert the natives, demand of them, as goes without saying, unconditional submission to their laws, which, according to them, all, without exception, proceed directly from the Supreme Being himself; Moses did the same, already a few thousand years before them, and the individual sailors who then find themselves on the island must make something of this kind extremely difficult for them there you What the Indians usually astonished at first, do not care about what they call the "God of Whites", do not attend a prayer meeting, or even counteract the missionaries directly. Such people must then be under everyone Condition can be removed or rendered harmless, and strange things have often happened there.

It can therefore be thought that these people do everything they can to keep sailors or other believers away from their whereabouts, and from their point of view I cannot really blame them for that; it's just an act of self-preservation - and yes, it serves alone for the salvation of the Indians.

But may the Protestant missionaries, which they always deny, the real ones ruling Lords of these islands, or rather been be or not, because the proximity of California and France's warships have brought about an essential change in this, that much is certain, there is an exemplary order in the city itself, and the high importation of spirituous beverages (5 dollars a gallon) contributes to this at, like the difficulty it has to get permission to pour one at a time. Of course that is included genus "Police servants" represented very significantly, and I saw 23 - say twenty-three - leaning against a plank wall in the upper market of the city, while an indefinite number of their colleagues flocked to and fro. Their costume is simple and uniform: a short, dark jacket, light trousers, shoes and a hat, on which the word "Policy«Shines with black letters on a yellow background.

The "standing army" of the young state seems less organized, and the government has not been encouraged by the behavior of the foreign warships to turn much to its state of defense. To resist a fleet advancing against them, the means of the newly born kingdom would not suffice, and to have the soldiers only for the state, the men who are now at the helm are too sensible for that.

There is actually no use at all for the soldiers there, because the police officers are perfectly adequate, and where they can no longer do anything, the whole "line" would probably be used without success.In front of the fort there is usually a specimen of it, in the form of the sentry, and the warm weather may excuse the "gray warrior" if he does not always have the heavy shotgun in his arms when marching up and down in front of the gate Let the "death pipe" rest peacefully in the corner of the broad gateway, and, trusting the honesty of his fellow citizens, not even take it in himself when he accompanies strangers into the inner part of the courtyard.

The uniform is on average blue with red or other facings, trousers indefinitely, cap a little high on the bushy hair. Exercise is carried out with one, sometimes with two muskets, one on the right shoulder, the other in the left hand; Side gun is missing. No special features at all.

But one thing made me happy, and dear old memories - memories from my school and youth days awakened in me - a wild Leipzig city soldier; blue with yellow facings, and still young, in his prime, just a little yellow-brown, I found here. Of course, I don't know how he got here. It is said that Indians from the islands were sometimes driven hundreds of miles in a canoe and driven to foreign coasts - the Leipzig city soldiers lived close to the Pleiße - should it perhaps be in a sentry house? . . . but these are only conjectures, and they really don't belong here.

Incidentally, when I allowed myself some joking remarks in Honolulu about the standing army of the Sandwich Islands, I almost arrived safely. An American heard it, and since he probably recognized after my pronunciation what kind of compatriot I was, the man asked me how I, as a German, could still make fun of something that was more a credit to the country than a disgrace rich. - "What use has your standing army now in Germany been for you?" He cried at last, getting more and more eager - "what did it accomplish precisely where it counted?" real To fight enemy of the country? - why has it been from the brand of the country for so long - "

I got into the man's talk and around the neck, and asked him to at least consider my royal. Saxon passport, but he broke away from me and growled:

"Oh, what do I care about your passport," - the Americans are famous for keeping you up at all Show no consideration - »I only get annoyed when the innocent war system is mocked me here. - There, "he went on suddenly, pointing to a warrior who was just passing by -" you see the Man, do you think he - despite the hole in his pants, which he could have mended - would ever think he was something else because the governor gave him a uniform with a yellow collar? - never - and that is just a Kanaka - and there they want to defend a standing army? "

Suddenly he took his hat, pressed it almost over his eyes, and ran down the street, still in full anger. What kind of confused terms people had about Germany and politics. But I let him go and preferred to enter the fort to see the inside, because the outside didn't look very promising. Inside, however, it looked much worse than outside, and sad was the sight of this little fort, which a year ago was stormed by the crew of a French warship - the Vincennes, I believe - and its cannons boarded up. The cause was the increased tax on brandy and other spirits (which since then have all paid 5 dollars per gallon, the gallon about 5 bottles, tax).

A French ship had tried to evade this tax and smuggled it, but was caught and French property was confiscated for it. The French warship acted by taking the side of a compatriot who against had lacked the laws of the country he was in and was legally punished for it, perfectly unjustBesides, it betrayed itself against a power which could not oppose it at all, as impolently and crudely as possible. It even intended to bombard the city, in which hundreds of innocents would have lost their lives or at least their property, but the sick of an American warship were just in the city, and the captain of the same did not want to take them on board at the warning of the French, Instead he planted his flag in front of the house, and the latter did not bomb the city now, but sent his people ashore, stormed the fort - which, I believe, did not even fire a shot - and not only completely ruined its cannons, the even now they are all in the saddest condition with their broken mounts and chopped off pieces, but also "confiscated", as he called it (one would do it on solid land steal call) the war schooner of King Kamehameha, who is said to have cost him about 15,000 dollars, and made the poor monarch understand in such a way that France by no means granted him the right to keep the laws he had given in force.

Incidentally, I have to say that this latest The cause of the French violence was not solely due to the fire tax, but that it was based on even older "misunderstandings", in which the French, of course, had the right on their side.

There is no space here to explain the matter precisely; only the following should the reader know for general understanding.

The American protestant Missionaries had first converted the natives to Christianity on all these islands, and had taken great pains with the conversion of their language into a written language and the translation of the Bible into it, like many other books. When later, at different times, French missionaries also wanted to take up residence there in order to give the partly still pagan natives the blessing of the catholic To admit religion, the Protestant clergy did not stand on their hind feet against the new and dangerous sect, no, according to all their later defenses, they assured most sacredly that they had behaved perfectly neutrally, and the missionary Bingham even writes very naively: "The pious brethren at that time just did not know whether they should ask God to prosper for this new spiritual teaching with a clear conscience" (and now someone tell me something against the Jesuits) but they stuck in theirs Private visits behind the king, and especially behind the queen, and had the Catholics, whom they described to the people as "Christian idol worshipers" with a regretful shrug of the shoulders, driven out of the country again, while the islanders, who had publicly professed this new doctrine, were punished partly with imprisonment, partly with public works.

Truly it will never occur to me to discuss which of the two confessions, the Protestant or the Catholic, deserved preference, and whether the Protestant clergy really did just wished to keep the Catholic faith away from the Sandwich Islands for the sake of their "interesting" natives (the gentlemen who are otherwise so Bible-proof and who only use the Bible to prove and continually cite passages from the Bible seem to have forgotten the words: "Test everything and keep the best!" have) while Catholics would have them just The salvation of the Indians was important to us, we also had to know very well how confused these poor devils became when they were offered two completely different Christian religions at the same time. But that much is certain happened, The Catholics were driven out and the result was that Monsieur La Place, captain of the French frigate Artemise, was with violence French missionaries (in 1839) ashore, and according to the following Clausel, in the treaty which he presented to the king under threat of bombardment of the city, also took 20,000 dollars with him as a caution for the future good behavior of the islands: “That the King of the Sandwich Islands give the hands of the captain of Artemise $ 20,000 as a guarantee as to what his future conduct against France will be; what amount the government will repay him as soon as it is convinced that the present contract has been faithfully carried out. "

By the way, the French government is probably still up until now Not came to the conclusion; at least the $ 20,000 has not yet been returned to the Sandwich Islands. Poor Kamehameha, I'm afraid she will be very hard to convince now!

In response to this last act of violence by the French, the government of the Sandwich Islands sent the young prince with an escort, the Treasury Secretary, to England and America, wherever possible, to receive protection and satisfaction. England and America, however, did not, it seems, want to concern themselves with the somewhat delicate and dangerous matter; the emissaries returned without having achieved anything, and it remained as it was.

The high tax on spirits, however, has remained in spite of all French threats, and if this was done by the missionaries, which I believe, they can only be thanked, in my opinion. Spiritual beverages are certainly poison to all savage peoples, and the North American Indians have unfortunately experienced this enough. I have not seen a single drunken native here, not even a drunken sailor, although that is said to happen sometimes. Wine and spirits are not entirely forbidden, however, but the few drinking houses are not allowed to be close to the water, but are further up in the city, and this makes it a little more difficult for the landing boatmen to get a drink quickly, and the inns when they do not having very special - and I think very expensive - »license« for it, are not allowed to serve by the glass.

After that last visit by the French frigate, which was so unfortunate for the city, no French warship had entered; It was precisely during my presence on Oahu that the Kanaka population suddenly started to move, and the rapid pacing of individuals as well as their lively speeches and gestures heralded something extraordinary. In fact, it was nothing less than a French warship that appeared off Honolulu, and since a French ship had recently been punished again for smuggling prohibited spirits, the Kanakas suspected nothing less than a new quarrel with those here However, the French are not popular at the moment. But they had been mistaken in this, it was the warship La Serieuse, which was by no means hostile, so that the owners of the thatched huts calmed down again. The "Serieuse" was still in the inner harbor when I left the islands again.

Incidentally, California has now totally transformed these islands, and the natives are literally turning from one astonishment into the other thrown.

The missionaries had introduced them to things that were wonderful for them right from the start. Blacksmithing in particular was something new and foreign to them, reading and writing then, yes, the Europeans themselves with their ships and clothes, weapons and equipment. But that was only supposed to have been the beginning of an even greater development; Billiards and bowling alleys aroused their admiration, which, as they believed at the time, was even increased to its highest level by the establishment of a lovers' theater. But they had no idea what else was being kept for them, and a short time ago the Indian quarter got into real excitement as a swarm of real art riders, with white, very tightly fitting and very dirty jerseys, painted faces and inappropriateness of gold braids only a short time before Horses bought on the spot and trained at full speed "triumphed," and with the help of various blowing and tearing instruments the entire yellow-brown population of Honolulu, in short everything that was not really nailed down, like the violinist from Hameln once upon a time the children and women, behind them, pulled through the city.

And even that was not the height of the unbelievable: Mr. Rossiter (Mr Rossiter stood broadly on the English slips of paper, but he could, as a German, on that Mr addressed in German, did not answer) it was reserved to achieve this, and the sandwich islanders now drag their last real - to the no small annoyance of the merchants, for whom many a brightly colored cloth and piece of calico remained in the shop - into the re-lit rooms of the one that came in Lovers' theater to see Mr. Rossiter dance on the tightrope, devour swords and oranges, behead pigeons and revive them, and many other completely indescribable things performed in the most indescribable way.

Nothing was missing now except that a living organ grinder should come here with a murder story neatly painted in green and red; I think the entire yellow-brown citizenship fell on him and his companion, who was always screaming hoarsely, with the packet of "new songs" around their necks.

Yet they in all To inaugurate the secrets of the civilized world all of a sudden would really not even be good for them, and the barrel organ man would therefore prefer to be withheld from them for a while longer.

With this civilization falling so rapidly, a rather comical case happened not so long ago. A Frenchman had settled here in Honolulu with the bold idea of ​​starting the culture of the islanders "from above"; H. not with the chiefs, but with theirs Heads to start, and therefore in one of the main streets as hair stylist established. So far everything was fine, but one morning, soon after daybreak, Honolulu seemed to be in an uproar - the Indians rushed through the streets, all at a certain point - individual words shouted at others cause these too to follow them, and the house where the French one Barber lived, was not only completely besieged in less than a quarter of an hour, but the black police are said to have even made an appearance to pick him up, where he might have been torn apart by the excited crowd outside.

But why? - for God's sake why? -

Why? Hadn't he put the cut off heads of three unfortunates boldly and impudently on display behind his own glass window? - and must he not have surprised the poor victims in the most maliciously insidious way that even now they still wore the friendly, uninhibited smile on their faces and kept their eyes open so clearly, as if nothing had happened, while their mutilated limbs probably cried out for vengeance against the murderer buried somewhere? In any case, some violent step would have been taken had it not been for a few other Frenchmen who had been settled there for a long time and cleared up the error.

But a native lives on this island, and even in the residence itself, who up to now has stubbornly opposed civilization, but like Goethe's Mephisto, can do nothing in the great, and it now begins in the small. Even the police cannot harm him, or - what is far more likely, is in league with him, and so he wanders the streets of the city, just keeping his full attention on destroying where others believed something had started .

And this individual is nothing less than a Billy goatwho, strangely enough, has focused all his mental faculties on Tear off pieces of paper, where he can get them, and has often brought the various stickers to despair. Honolulu is by no means such an insignificant place, it has printing presses and newspapers and horsemen and other skills that all want to be glued on and reported. The government also very often issues attacks, and a The billy goat actually has his hands full to keep the corners free of papers. The animal behaves in the most cunning way, and whoever sees it should claim again afterwards that animals in general have no understanding - or perhaps their instincts also drive them to glued slips of paper? -

It was on the second morning when I slowly, surrendering to the new impressions that were invading me everywhere, strolled through the streets of Honolulu and below, not far from the fort, found a big, beautiful billy goat, which at first shy of me and seemed to look suspiciously, but then again, after a cautious look around, which is particularly peculiar to the savage even in the quietest, safest places, between the coral blocks piled up or scattered about there in some construction, looking for the abundant overgrown grass.Perhaps I would have watched the beautiful animal longer had my attention not been captured at that moment by a native who was carrying a large armful of notes to stick on and a paste pot. The note was entitled, "Makana" offering some kind of reward for the discoverer of arson, and even then I noticed the behavior of the Indian who, as he climbed up on a low step he was carrying, gave the billy goat a suspicious look, and with him the hand in which he carried the paste pot threatened to cross over to him. The billy goat didn't seem to take the slightest notice of him, however, and must have discovered a very sweet patch of grass just then, because he pushed his head almost entirely between a couple of large coral blocks - at least he hadn't noticed the note bearer.

More wonderful and, as it seemed to me, most uselessly, the brown fellow stuck his note up horribly, you could hardly make out the words, despite the large letters, and only after he had almost dislocated his arms and something in his Language mumbled, he climbed down the step again, took it under his arm and disappeared around the next corner, but after a while - ten minutes must have passed about it - his head with the paste pot suddenly came out again, and after one With a long, suspicious look at the goat, he disappeared for the second time without the billy goat having taken the slightest notice of him.

It all struck me as so strange and extraordinary that I followed the man to see what he was doing, but I had barely reached the corner where I saw him busy with another piece of paper than the billy goat I was for began to interest me, because he now carefully raised his head for the first time, looked attentively down the street and then up, and when he saw no one suspicious, because he could tell from me that I would not disturb him in his operations, it came quickly between the coral blocks, was in a few leaps on a heap of lumber that was piled up a few steps from there, and from which a beam protruded narrowly and swaying right up to the note, ran up this like a tightrope walker, and Before I could even grasp what he wanted up there, he had grasped the newly glued-on piece of paper, tore it off, and when it reached the floor again, the wet paper was already wet, if not already chewed, but at least chewed.

Without stopping further down the street, however, he walked slowly up the street, following the note carrier, and pulled down four notes, which I was present with, until a police officer came down the street and the billy goat, turning quickly into a narrow side street, behind disappeared from the lower bamboo houses.

The owner of the American Circus, who had sent one of his own people around to paste up his notes, kept not a single one up, since he was only about four feet from the ground, and ascribing the whole thing to a rival's chicane, he complained even for that reason in the courts. By the way, God knows whether the billy goat was "taboo," that is, it was not allowed to be touched or harmed, or whether - what is more likely - the natives themselves enjoyed seeing the cozy animal occupied in such a way, briefly despite all these various offenses happened to it Nothing at all, except maybe a little slap every now and then, when he happened to be caught in the act by someone commissioned to do the job.

Later I tried my best to buy the billy goat in order to transplant the race to Germany; the net profit in a species of animals that could be grown on maculature alone would have been enormous, but the owner did not want to sell it under any conditions.

As for the country's government, it is purely monarchical. Kamehameha III. rules as absolute ruler, d. H. his ministers, two Americans and a Scot, rule for him, and Se. Your Majesty, meanwhile, is seeking the stranger, who always wants to maintain that he is under the rule of the missionaries, to prove most vigorously that this is not by any means the case, but that even if only the missionaries suffered, you are totally prohibited from importing brandy would cancel. The poor man is said not to have sobered up in the last fourteen days about these two arguments, which are somewhat difficult to combine.

Incidentally, who knows whether he would drink so heavily if left to his own devices, and whether the prohibition and the watchfulness and constant warning of the missionaries towards the old chief's pride does not contribute much to making him reach for the bottle out of anger than sadness. Anything else I heard about him was only for his benefit. If left to his own devices, he is said to be a good-natured, even amiable man, only naturally a little suspicious of strangers, and also an excellent boxer and rider, and, even if not very tall and robustly built, he is said to be of enormous physical strength.

About the Ladies Unfortunately, I was unable to make any inquiries about the court during the short time I stayed there.

As for the Honolulu residents, their population, if not as mixed as the San Francisco's, is not so much inferior to them either. The proletariat, to start from below, consists only of the Kanakas themselves, and a few, very few, very vulgar brandy taverns for sailors held by Europeans.

The Kanakas themselves live extremely simply and moderately, and the only thing they used to allow themselves secretly here and there in extravagance was a rather intoxicating drink made from the ava root; But spirits are completely forbidden to them, and severe punishments are imposed on them for selling them to natives, while the natives themselves by no means seem to show such a desire to pursue their consumption greedily. I can't remember a single time seeing a drunken native.

Their diet consists mainly of the taro or palo root (for in their language they keep confusing the T and P and L and R with one another, since their ears cannot distinguish them at all) which seems to them to be the same as the southern islands the breadfruit, the acorn to the Californian Indians, the rice to the Indians. The taro is a large, strong root, twelve to fifteen and even more inches in circumference, nearly purple in color, with large stems and fleshy leaves that resemble arrowheads but several feet long and twelve to sixteen inches wide, while the Plant itself wants to be grown in water or at least thin liquid mud. The small places in which this staple food grows are therefore also perfectly small ponds, the edges of which are bordered by bananas, oranges and coconut palms.

Raw, the root is inedible, spicy and acrid, cooked but excellent and not entirely dissimilar to the sweet potato, even more nutritious than this. For use, the taro root is baked in the earth until it is dry and floury, then grated with a stone into fine flour and in water until it becomes a thick, not too thin pulp, and then set aside to ferment. After about twenty-four hours this has attained the necessary palatability, and even then the way in which the mass is eaten or, better, spread is appetizing. Half stretched out on his mat or crouching with his feet drawn in next to the calabash that contains the all-popular dish, the Indian runs his right index finger - which seems so exclusively intended for this use that he himself calls it the Poe finger ka rima poe into the porridge, and with a skillful swing not to let any of the viscous mass drip off, he puts the refreshment in his mouth, wipes it off and is ready for a second "spoonful". Dried or raw fish is used as a seasoning for the meal.

The Indian uses bottle gourds for water vessels, which actually come from his old pagan times, which are delicately cut and decorated with regular, often extremely tastefully executed figures and arabesques or, to a certain extent, tattooed. These, with a few Poe calabashes, actually form his whole kitchen utensil, and if one comes into such a hut of the natives and is not exactly familiar with the circumstances of these people, one is certainly led to believe that the whole family is just that moved out with sackcloth and baggage, and only left the mosquito net behind to catch up later. Such a net with a few mats usually and one or two pillows stuffed with fiber wool is really the only thing they have, and here and there you see the colossal Bibles translated into the Kanaka language or a few smaller prayer books lying around. Only under the roof are a couple of long fish spears or harpoons, or a net hangs in one corner, so that they are "set up."

The huts themselves usually consist of rods stuck in the ground and tightly braided with grass mats, or sometimes made of reed and bamboo.

Honolulu's middle class is made up of a few craftsmen who have immigrated there with the better hosts. There is a rental horse owner, etc., blacksmith and wagon maker, carpenters and locksmiths, and Americans in particular have settled here, encouraged by the favorable location of the islands. But the German element is also represented, and besides one of our compatriots who runs a kind of sailors' bar, there are several carpenters there who are supposed to look excellent.

After these come the merchants, Spaniards, French, English, Americans and Germans, a few doctors, Dr. Petri and Dr. Hofmann, editors, etc., and no longer separated from them, the haute volée of the islands, some wealthy landowners, the ministers of the empire and - the missionaries.

The King, Se. Majesty, as he is called in all public documents with "his ministers and nobles," mostly only socializes with his chiefs and missionaries, but he also often gives audience, namely when he is in an adequate condition, and also likes to socialize in town, especially to buy things, although his credit should not be unlimited with the merchants.

Little by little, some of the sons and daughters of the heavenly kingdom lost their way over here, and founded shops and an eatery, but they were nothing new to me, the long-braided shirtless figures in their wide overcoats, with the smooth, mischievous faces, none the less pleased me me to see them here, because they gave the whole painting an originality that I would not have liked to have missed in it.

The Christian religion is now the only predominant one, at least on Oahu, although there are said to be very many pagans on the larger islands. Incidentally, only recently the missionaries converted the islands and declared the missionary work there ended, as I first saw from the newspapers, and I believe they no longer call themselves missionaries there, but have taken on the rank of salaried preacher. There is also an easily identifiable reason for this. The places on the islands became too lucrative, the Indians got, because of the high rise in products, too much money in their hands and the attention of various other missionary societies began to turn to the Sandwich Islands; new sects were therefore feared, or competition in general, and such a declaration gave other missions - except Catholics who did not recognize Protestantism as Christianity - an excuse to send new teachers over here.

The missionaries, which of them have not entered the civil service (and some of them have even become ministers, although they had never been involved in politics before) have their fixed salaries from now on.

In addition to this there is also a Seamen's Chapel or seaman's chapel, charged exclusively for the ships calling there, whose preacher is a Mr. Damon, an altogether religious but nonetheless extremely interesting newspaper, who edits the Friend, in which he is not alone Everything that concerns religion or temperance societies, but also, through the dealings with the seafarers, the sale for his paper mostly on the ships, brings very interesting articles about travel and foreign countries mostly related to whale fishing. The seaman's chapel has set up a small, independent bar, partly facing the church and partly serving as a reading room. I visited the latter and found it with four gruesome pictures, gigantic colored pictures of the liver of man with the destructive effects of alcohol on it. It may be quite a pleasant conversation looking at the blackboards, especially for people who have given up drinking all their lives and can now see pretty closely what they look like inside, and I don't want to deny that there are many good things about it likes to remind them of the terrible consequences of excessive drinking, since it is precisely these that also get the most worthless beverages that are mixed with all harmful substances; but who is Not has to keep a frightening example constantly before his eyes, on him at any rate it makes just as much an impression as that head in the pampas, speared on a pole.

It was precisely at this time that Mr. Damon was busy, who also assures his visits that he Not belongs to the missionaries, very busy with one Japanese Matter. Several native Japanese, who had once been fished at sea from an American ship, had arrived from California and intended to return to their homeland. Even then, the Americans were far too interested in Japan to let such an opportunity pass by unused, and Mr. Damon was collecting a whale fish boat, compass, rifle, some clothes, shoes, etc. for them. Captain Whitmore of the American ship Sarah Boyd had offered to drop them off in sight of the Lu Chu Islands, from where they would then have to try to reach the coast, since they would be as soon as the Japanese authorities suspected them brought there by a strange vehicle would not only endanger their freedom, but also their lives. I hear the sum came together in a very short time.

Much has already been done for the literature of the Sandwich Islands, and various American printing presses are busy printing newspapers, some religious tracts and writings.

The entire complete Bible has already appeared in the Hawaiian language, then the New Testament alone, as well as several prayer books, little primers for children as well as for the adult natives, to acquaint them with European objects also in the illustration and to make them the beginnings of their own To teach language in scripture.

In addition to the "Friend", which, in the middle between religious and entertainment papers, is aimed more at seafaring readers, the "Polynesian", the official journal of the Hawaiian government, which also comes out weekly, appears in large format and earlier also a small sheet is entirely intended for the purposes of the temperance associations, but this has now been received and has partly transferred its tendency to the friend.

A monthly issue also appeared earlier, the Hawaiean Spectator, conducted by an association of gentlemen, and also printed in Honolulu, but most of it was devoted to missionary work and only lasted a few years.

In addition, formal works have already appeared on Honolulu, such as B. Jarves History of the Hawaiean Isles with woodcuts made in the States, of course, like several other books, and the Americans have proven here, as everywhere, that they know how to do what they touch perfectly well.

Incidentally, in order to see something of the interior for myself, one fine morning I went to see a Dr. Petri from Eisenach, whom I had the pleasure of getting to know, on the so-called Pali or Pari, a rocky slope that separates the southern half of the island from the northern one.

We rode up the mountains on pretty good and lively horses, following the main road, and I can say that I haven't had a happier afternoon for a long time than when we galloped through the really lovely area of ​​this island. and drew in the balsamic air that blew from the green hills over to us.

When we left the city, we first kept for quite a distance in a dense avenue of those linden-like tulip trees, which at the same time, after the path to, form the enclosure for the tarot ponds that adjoin the road, and for this purpose entirely were planted close to each other, literally like a hedge. From the left, the small water levels of the ponds flashed out of the broad, juicy leaves and the bananas planted around them, and a little further on, over individual fish ponds and between slender sugar cane, tall coconut palms with their fan-like giant leaves swayed in front of them.

We flew past it into the open country; here and there a pleasure house built in European taste peeked out of the dark green of the surrounding bushes, and colorfully scattered around it, but all with small gardens and wherever possible with tarot ponds, which the mountain stream led over in a deep ditch with Provided water, the low straw huts of the natives stood.

The further we got away from the city, the steeper the path went uphill, and to the right we heard the rush of a waterfall. The doctor, although not long on these islands, was already pretty well known here, and rode towards a garden gate. A little Indian opened the door, and a couple of girls with an old Kanaka came out of the next hut and held our horses as we dismounted. To the right, just a short distance from the house, the path led to the slope of a steep valley, over which we had a view of the waterfall bubbling down opposite.

It was not a great sight, but a most delightful sight to see the bright brook break out of the shady bushes and, as if in great exuberance, jump over the sharp rocks into the valley between 40 and 50 feet deep, where it first settles in a small basin collected and recovered from his dangerous set, and then - like a "civilized" Indian who had become a Christian and a good citizen - gave up his free, beautiful life and flowed down serious and sedate into the cultivated valley. It was over for him with the forest and the forest slopes, over with the joys, the lust of his youth; that lay Behind He had thrown himself out of his paradise in an inaccessible chasm and half voluntarily half forced. He could no longer break through the shady green of the forest at his own discretion and praise God's goodness in his own murmur and splash - no longer caress with the flowers that bow down to him, and search for colorful pebbles under the old, long-riddled tree roots that he then played and darted, and carelessly followed his carefree path with him into the valley, but now he was shown what real life was, and the purpose had been made known to him for the first time after so many thousand years of pleasure and freedom, that's why God actually created him, and why he was in the world.

Above all, he first had to fill the taro ponds for those who preached this new wisdom to him, water the gardens and drive mills and machines, and also clean all the black linen for the city and the surrounding area, and finally, rushed over and over and chased away where he was in the way, drawn wherever he was needed, weary of life and weary, his crystal-bright tide turned into a puddle, to disappear into the vast seas of infinity. - I do not know what they once promised the brook in return for this in the ocean - but I was very sorry for him.

We still had quite a bit to ride, so we couldn't stay that long at the waterfall. Soon we were sitting in the saddle again and galloping uphill. While the road got worse here and here and there deep swamps let the horses sink to their knees, we also had company. A little brown boy and a girl, both between eight and nine years old, jumped in mad leaps next to and in front of the horses, no longer paying attention to the mud and stones with their bare feet as if they were soft carpets. Despite her clothes that weren't so cheap for walking, the girl kept pace perfectly well, was still 15 to 20 paces ahead, while the brown lad finally, to make things a little easier, caught my horse's tail and well, liked it run as it wanted, taken away under any condition. The doctor explained to me: the little gang ran with me to keep the horses up on the Pali and to earn a real.

We were now not far from the upper end of the ravine, which almost looks as if it had been torn apart by some terrible shaking of the earth; the north-east trade wind roared through the thick bushes, which, mixed with wild pisang, closed the path tightly, and far from over there we could hear the roar of the surf. A short distance more, and I quickly grabbed the reins of my horse, for the ground suddenly fell abruptly in front of me, and many hundred feet below me was the northern half of Woahu.

To the right and left, however, the slopes of the dividing mountain ridge rose up steeply and steeply, and through the narrow gorge that was formed the sharp north-east whistled so roughly that we had to keep our hats above all else. I put mine in my pocket, got off the horse, the reins of which my little companion had already taken hold of, and now, stretched out in the grass, surrendered to the impression of the panorama stretching far below me.

The valley stood like a half-torn cauldron, the other half of which had been swallowed up by the sea and rushed over it boiled and fermented and rushed against the other half, and the white foam waves of the surf rushed from the sea over the looming coral reefs and threw them in impotent fury far up over the sand. The lower fertile valley floor was covered with green - what was growing there could not be determined because of the great distance - and individual little yellow hut roofs only peeked out from it in silence. Far in the far distance a small white sail glided, and deep in the shadiest ground moved individual bright points that I soon recognized through my pocket telescope as grazing cows.

The sky hung blue and clear above, and the slender white "boatswain" who swept across from the sea seemed to rest neatly on his feathers as he floated against us with barely noticeable flaps of his wings, as if he wanted to drive the strangers out of his sanctuary.

Loud talking and laughing around me reminded me that I am not alone up here. At the edge of the abyss there was still a motley group of Kanakas, men and girls - all of them here to buy a few reals from strangers who came up to buy horses. A couple of Englishmen, who did not seem to have come up to admire the natural beauties of the Pali, joined them, and one of them, a little drunk, did not seem to have a bad desire to ride down the steep path into the valley before us. He finally let his more sober companions move him to refrain. In order to have some compensation, however, he took a leather-covered bottle out of his pocket, asked the doctor, whom he had never seen in his life, for a cigar, assured him that he would have it if he came to see the Old Miner , wanted to pay with all my heart, and then sat down on the grass next to a wild brown girl who had come with him, where he divided his attention most conscientiously between her and the bottle for as long as I was watching him.

This abyss has historical fame, because here the prince and the chiefs of this island rushed down when Kamehameha the first or the "conqueror," as he is also called (the grandfather of the current king), came over from Hawaii or Owaihy and himself the whole archipelago was subjected to arms by force.

The life of this bold old chief has, on the whole, a great deal of romance and chivalry, and in the old world, where he would have had a greater arena for his deeds, he might have achieved mighty things and made the world talk about while he was the governments of his neighboring states thrown overboard, and carried his victorious flags over the border guards' marks. Here now he has reached the highest that has been placed in his area - from Hawaii, the main island, he sailed with a small fleet of swaying canoes, defying the element as well as the enemies, submitting, with the club in hand, all the islands of the whole group and bequeathed to his successors the glorious title of Kamehameha - a king of kings.

But what would the old Kamehameha say if he now had his grandson, Kamehameha III. in the state uniform and by his equally dressed up ministers and Noble ones surrounded, saw in his old royal seat? - I think old Kamehameha has turned around in his grave so often in the last thirty years that he must have become quite dizzy.

We now mounted our horses again to gallop back into town, but from up here we received even more company than we had up there. It was towards evening, riders were no longer expected upstairs, and a whole swarm of children gathered around us as we sat up. Right from the start, the Doctor's horse rejected any confidentiality, but mine was more good-natured, although lively enough, the little gang might have known it already, and I barely had my right foot in the stirrup, so sat with them one perky leap a young Indian woman behind me on the horse; three others, the first two from before and a smaller boy, took hold of the tail, the smallest one gave the animal a whip over the loin, and down the hill it went what the horse could run, and the little wild crowd wanted She laughed half-dead at the breakneck sentences at which she was often swept away in the air, but still didn't let go until we got about halfway to town and probably near their huts, where all four of them disappeared just as quickly as they came.

The Indians themselves ride excellently and even the women and girls sit boldly on horseback and mostly hunt at full speed along the streets, just as in the saddle, incidentally, as the former, and only a large piece of cattun, just like the South Americans wear the cheripa attached to the back of the belt, pulled through between the knees and tapped back into the belt at the front so that the ends often flutter far out on both sides.

The climate of the Sandwich Islands is excellent, and those who live there can choose any temperature, as in Madeira. Though within the tropics, the vegetation belongs less to them than to a moderately warm zone. It is true that coconut palms grow here, and indeed to a considerable height, but by no means as lush as is supposed to be the case on the more southern islands. Sugar and coffee are also used here, but the main products of the islands are potatoes, which never thrive in a truly tropical country as well as here. But this would also be a part of the sky that would appeal to our German compatriots, and in fact all the Germans I have met here are extremely well. The Sandwich Islands are about 21 degrees north latitude, but I don't think there is a healthier temperature in the colder parts of the sky than the stranger on this small group of islands (between 155 and 160 degrees west longitude to Greenwich ) finds.

The names of the various islands are Owaihy or Hawaii, the largest of the same with the mightiest volcano on earth, and famous because Captain Cook found his death here, then Maui, Tahaurawe, Ranai, Morokai, Oahu (with the capital and residence city of Honolulu) or Atooi Tauari and Nihau.

Already discovered by Spaniards long years ago, they were actually found again by Captain Cook, but then mainly visited by whale fishers from the Japanese and northern seas who found an excellent stop here, among the friendly people, and themselves from their exertions and the long voyage, just as their ships could again provide fruit and other food and needs.

First the missions, then the discovery of California brought about a real revolution in the affairs of the islands. Kamehameha III. Under the influence of the Europeans, under whose hands he was brought up, he got to know a new life and new needs, found that the products of his country, which otherwise had come partly to the benefit of the whole people and partly unused, should be put to excellent use for himself , pleased himself in the new pomp, with uniforms, epaulettes, and reception ceremonies with which he was wisely dressed, and - became a king. The cattle, which Captain Cook had set out on Owaihy and thereby brought great advantage to the country, he declared as his sole property (he did not even allow hunting cards to be bought), gathered up all the sandalwood on his islands and sold them to the vehicles that landed there. once even, because he hoped to derive greater benefit from it, he himself loaded a ship with it and sent it, I believe to China, to drop off its cargo there, but, of course being cheated by everyone, did extremely bad business and lost a lot of money. Whatever the case, sandalwood was so ravaged into it, partly for the new needs of the king, partly for the old missionaries, who set up the huge, expensive stone church and comfortable houses for themselves, that not a stick has been left of it in recent times stayed and a closed season has been given up, in which none of the young shoots may be touched again.

California crowned it all, as I said earlier won all Products, especially those that were edible, were enormous, and Americans themselves came over who, with more diligence and perseverance than the natives, knew how to attack agriculture as well as all other businesses, and who gave the country itself a higher value.

All these prices have now fallen again, only the land seems to have held the same value and will hold it. The Sandwich Islands do not have to gain in importance every year, no every month, because no other archipelago is up there in the vast seas that give the Hawaiian islands the status of a station place after the entire immense Indian empire with mainland and archipelago, after China and Australia, even after Japan perhaps later, could contest it.

In addition to that, especially at the present time, whale catchers are also a very important branch of business for the group, as the so-called bowheads and all those whale catchers have only been discovered and used in the last few years forced it is precisely this group that is to be approached, as they are not allowed to risk it in San Francisco because of the sailors running away.

So much for the islands' convenient location.

The main products of the country are: the taro root, the potato, the sweet potato, yams, sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, coconuts, bananas, oranges - and cattle, lots of pigs, wild goats, turkeys and chickens. The taro root in particular is so nourishing and rich that a single field can be planted with it, a whole family receives year after year, and the natives themselves really need little else. After the first planting, the root takes a full year to reach full maturity and use, but then it spends no less and delivers its harvest uninterruptedly.

Our common German potato, as already said, thrives admirably on these islands, and the farmers have the least possible work to do with it, after all, after the first planting, there is really little more to do than to harvest in the appointed time. When harvesting, there are always enough potatoes left to seed to replant the field again, while such a process should not have the slightest disadvantage on the production itself.

The sweet potato, usually not loved very much by Germans, because they have to overcome an aversion to the name (by which we mean frozen potatoes), is almost preferred by the Americans to the others and is, at least in my opinion , an excellent fruit that resembles a potato, but has a more sweet, confectionery and very pleasant taste. It also produced very abundant harvests, and was shipped a lot to California at the time, but was otherwise not as suitable for ship provisions as the usual one, since it can hardly be kept on board for more than six weeks.

Sugar cane is to the potato is probably the most important product, and even allows the fields to make an even greater profit than the first (if the prices of sugar are not as depressed as they have been in recent years) only that the time between the first plant a sugar plantation and its harvest is longer.

The sugar cane takes eighteen months after the first stick, since it is only in or to the "Taffelzeit" (taffles are those reed-like tufts that, like our river reeds, or similarly with Turkish wheat, form the top of the cane) have reached their full maturity and greatest juiciness. The young saplings then break out again and, now that they have already put down proper roots and do not need any further time, they will deliver their second harvest by next November, i.e. after about 11 months, and even cut later , it will always be the time of full maturity.

The yield a field planted with sugar cane gives is about 2000 pounds of sugar, 150 gallons of molasses, or syrup, for each harvest. Sugar houses have already been built on the islands for half the yield, deliver the sugar like molasses ready. The net yield of one field would be 1,000 pounds of sugar and 75 gallons of molasses.

The work that the sugar cane demands is insignificant, since the rows only have to be raised two or three times, but the cane itself only needs to be pinned every three years, as the germination of the roots only declines after this time has elapsed. Nonetheless, the Sandwich Islands will not be able to compete with other sugar-producing countries for a long time for two reasons unless their internal circumstances change a great deal, since first of all they cannot get work as cheaply and easily as all those countries where either slaves are kept, or the natives are to be used with success for all this work, and secondly because they use the garbage to make rum